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CRM-MPL1 The Western Sahara in the light of the International law : Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara Carlos Ruiz Miguel, Universidad.

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Presentation on theme: "CRM-MPL1 The Western Sahara in the light of the International law : Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara Carlos Ruiz Miguel, Universidad."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRM-MPL1 The Western Sahara in the light of the International law : Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara Carlos Ruiz Miguel, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, España Moisés Ponce de León Iglesias, Université Rennes 2 – Haute Bretagne, France

2 CRM-MPL2 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

3 CRM-MPL3 « Any legal analysis of the question of Western Sahara should take into account several basic, objective, statements that are the key of any approach to the conflict according to the International Law » Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

4 CRM-MPL4 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara « Any approach differing from these statements could be clearly qualified as illegal according to the Law of the United Nations »

5 CRM-MPL5 October 2011

6 CRM-MPL6

7 CRM-MPL Spain signs a Treaty of protectorate with certain Sahrawi tribes and begins its occupation of the territory The General Assembly of the UNO asks Spain to withdraw from Spanish Sahara, in the international context of the decolonization, and asserts the right to self-determination for the Sahrawi people Creation of the Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Front Polisario) Small historical reminder

8 CRM-MPL8 Small historical reminder Spain announces its intention to withdraw and begin to organize a referendum of self-determination. Hassan II persuades the General Assembly to ask an advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice about how to proceed with the decolonisation of the Territory Advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice reaffirming the application of resolution 1514 of the UN-GA in the decolonization of Western Sahara and the application of the principle of self-determination for the populations of the territory. (October 16th)

9 CRM-MPL Green March launches the occupation of the Western Sahara by Morocco (November 6th) 1976.(February 26th) Withdrawal from Spain. Morocco and Mauritanian try to conquer the Territory 1976 Spain, Morocco and Mauritania sign the so-called Madrid Agreements where quality of Spain as administering power of the Western Sahara is illegally tansfered to an interim (as much until Feb 28th 1976) to a tripartite administration (Spain-Morocco-Mauritania) (February 27th). Creation of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic ( RASD) by the Front Polisario Cease fire and peace treaty with Mauritania. Annexation by Morocco of the territory occupied by Mauritania Small historical reminder

10 CRM-MPL Construction by the Moroccan army of walls of 2700 km long which divide the Sahrawi territory OUA ( Organization of African Unity ) admits the SADR within as its 51 st member Under the auspices of the OAU and the UNO, signature by the two parties (Morocco and Polisario Front) of the Settlement Plan, wich establishes a cease-fire and the holding of a referendum of self-determination in The Settlement Plan is approved by the Security Council (resolutions 658 & 690). Creation of the Misssion of the United Nations for the Referendum in the Western Sahara (MINURSO in the Spanish acronym) Boycott of the referendum by Morocco Small historical reminder

11 CRM-MPL11 1 The Western Sahara is a « non-self governing territory » and a « colonial country » A/RES/2072_1965 A/RES/2625_1970 … A/RES/66/86_2012 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

12 CRM-MPL12 A/RES/2072_1965 1

13 CRM-MPL13 A/RES/2072_1965 1

14 CRM-MPL14 RES/2072_1965 1

15 CRM-MPL15 A/RES/2625_1970 1

16 CRM-MPL16 A/RES/2625_1970 1

17 CRM-MPL17 A/RES/66/86_2012 1

18 CRM-MPL18 2 The conflict of Sahara Occidental is a « question of decolonization » A/RES/2072_1965 A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/33-31_1978 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 A/RES/39-40_1984 A/RES/45-21_1990 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 A/RES/66/86_2012 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

19 CRM-MPL19 2 A/RES/2072_1965

20 CRM-MPL20 A/RES/2229_1966 2

21 CRM-MPL21 2 A/RES/35-19_1980

22 CRM-MPL22 2 A/RES/35/19_1980

23 CRM-MPL23 2 A/RES/35/19_1980

24 CRM-MPL24 2 A/RES/45-21_1990

25 CRM-MPL25 A/RES/65-112_2011 2

26 CRM-MPL26 A/RES/66/86_2012 2

27 CRM-MPL27 3 The United Nations recognizes internationally the existence of the « people of Western Sahara » A/RES/2072_1965 A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 A/RES/33/31_1978 A/RES/34/37_1979 A/RES/35/19_1980 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 S/RES/1920_2010 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

28 CRM-MPL28 3 A/RES/2229_1966

29 CRM-MPL29 3 A/RES/3458_1975

30 CRM-MPL30 3 A/RES/66/86_2012

31 CRM-MPL31 3 S/RES/2044_2012

32 CRM-MPL32 4 The people of Western Sahara is composed by the « indigenous people of the Territory » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 S/2000/131, para. 6 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

33 CRM-MPL33 4

34 CRM-MPL34 4 A/RES/3458_A/1975

35 CRM-MPL35 4 S/2000/131

36 CRM-MPL36 4 S/2000/131

37 CRM-MPL37 4 S/2000/131

38 CRM-MPL38 5 The people of the Western Sahara has a « right to self-determination » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 A/RES/33-31_1978 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 S/RES/1871_2009 S/RES/1920_2010 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

39 CRM-MPL39 A/RES/2229_1966 5

40 CRM-MPL40 A/RES/65/112_2011 5

41 CRM-MPL41 A/RES/3458-A_1975 5

42 CRM-MPL42 S/RES/1871/2009 5

43 CRM-MPL43 S/RES/1920/2010 5

44 CRM-MPL44 6 The right of self-determination of the people of Western Sahara is « inalienable » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 A/RES/66/86_2012 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

45 CRM-MPL45 A/RES/2229_1966 6

46 CRM-MPL46 A/RES/66/86_2012 2

47 CRM-MPL47 7 The inalienable right of self-determination of the people of Western Sahara should be exercised by a « referendum » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 A/RES/33-31_1978 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 A/RES/38-40_1983 A/RES/65/112_2011 S/RES/621_1988 S/RES/658_1990 S/RES/1871_2009 S/RES/1920_2010 S/RES/2044/2012 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

48 CRM-MPL48 A/RES/2229_1966 7

49 CRM-MPL49 A/RES/3458-A_1975 7

50 CRM-MPL50 A/RES/38-40_1983 7

51 CRM-MPL51 S/RES/658/1990 7

52 CRM-MPL52 S/RES/690/1991 7

53 CRM-MPL53 S/RES/2044/2012 7

54 CRM-MPL54 S/RES/1920/2010 7

55 CRM-MPL55 S/RES/2044/2012 7

56 CRM-MPL56 8 The referendum of self-determination should be « free, democratic and impartial » « without any administrative or military contraints » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/38-40_1983 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

57 CRM-MPL57 S/RES/2229/1966 8

58 CRM-MPL58 A/RES/38-40/1983 8

59 CRM-MPL59 9 The people of Western Sahara has a « right to independence » Because never existed « any tie of territorial sovereignity » Between Morocco and the Western Sahara A/RES/2229_1966 CIJ 1975 A/RES/38-40_1983 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

60 CRM-MPL60 A/RES/3292/1974 9

61 CRM-MPL61 A/RES/3292/1974 9

62 CRM-MPL62 9

63 CRM-MPL63 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975

64 CRM-MPL64 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 105 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 105

65 CRM-MPL65 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 105

66 CRM-MPL66 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 162

67 CRM-MPL67 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 162

68 CRM-MPL68 10 Spain is the « administering power » of the Western Sahara A/RES/2072_1965 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 A/66/65_2011 A/67/71_2012 S/2002/161, para. 6 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

69 CRM-MPL69 10 S/2002/161

70 CRM-MPL70 10 A/67/71

71 CRM-MPL71 10 A/67/71

72 CRM-MPL72 10 A/67/71 but… a State neither loses its status of administering power, nor is released from the fulfilmente of its obligations by simply opposing to it de facto…

73 CRM-MPL73 11 The presence of Morocco in the major part of Western Sahara is an « occupation» S/RES/380_1975 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

74 CRM-MPL74 11 S/RES/380_1975

75 CRM-MPL75 11 A/RES/34-37_1979

76 CRM-MPL76 11 A/RES/35-19_1980

77 CRM-MPL77 11 A/RES/35-19_1980

78 CRM-MPL78 12 The Frente Polisario is the « representative of the people of Western Sahara » A/RES/33-31_1978 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

79 CRM-MPL79 12 A/RES/33-31_1978

80 CRM-MPL80 12 A/RES/34-37_1979

81 CRM-MPL81 12 A/RES/34-37_1979

82 CRM-MPL82 12 A/RES/35-19_1980

83 CRM-MPL83 12 A/RES/35-19_1980

84 CRM-MPL84 13 The Frente Polisario and Morocco are the two « parties to the conflict » A/RES/38-40_1983 A/RES/39-40_1984 A/RES/45-21_1990 S/RES/1495_2003 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

85 CRM-MPL85 13 A/RES/38-40_1983

86 CRM-MPL86 13 A/RES/39-40_1984

87 CRM-MPL87 13 A/RES/45-21_1990

88 CRM-MPL88 14 The people of Western Sahara has « legitimacy » to fight on behalf of the right to self-determination and independence of the people of Western Sahara A/RES/2625_1970 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

89 CRM-MPL89 14 A/RES/34-37_1979

90 CRM-MPL90 14 A/RES/2625_1970

91 CRM-MPL91 15 There is a « responsability of the United Nations » in the decolonization of the Western Sahara A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/2983_1972 A/RES/3162_1973 A/RES3458-A_1975 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

92 CRM-MPL92 15 A/RES/2229_1966

93 CRM-MPL93 15 A/RES/2983_1972

94 CRM-MPL94 15 A/RES/3162_1973

95 CRM-MPL95 15 A/RES/3458-A_1975

96 CRM-MPL96 15 A/RES/65/112_2011

97 CRM-MPL97 …for, any proposed solution needs to be firmly grounded in international law in order to achieve just and fair, legitimate and sustainable outcomes. Karin Arts et Pedro Pinto Leite (in International Law and the question of Western Sahara, Éd. IPJET, 2007 Le droit international et la question du Sahara occidental, Éd. IPJET, 2009)

98 CRM-MPL98 The history of the conflict is downright discouraging to anyone who believes in the rule of law.

99 CRM-MPL99 Despite dozens of UN Security Council resolutions since 1975, all reaffirming the right of the people of Western Sahara to self-determination, and the fact that the UNs Fourth Committee treats Western Sahara as a Moroccan colony, Morocco continues to put itself above the law and remains firmly in place, and in charge, in Western Sahara, Africas last colony.

100 CRM-MPL100 It is what lawyers call res ipsa loquitur (the thing speaks for itself), which means that in certain crystal clear situations a simple recitation of the facts, without need of further proof, is sufficient to presume guilt.

101 CRM-MPL101 We are all Saharawis now Aujourdhui, nous sommes tous des Sahraouis Hoy todos somos saharauis Frank Rudy Ambassadeur des États Unis

102 CRM-MPL102 Occupied but not conquered Ocupados pero no conquistados Occupés mais non conquis

103 CRM-MPL103 Hmad Hammad

104 CRM-MPL104 SOURCES - The rigth to self-determination and the natural resources of the Western Sahara (inedit), Carlos Ruiz Miguel - International law and the question of Western Sahara, Éd. IPJET, 2007, Karin Arts et Pedro Pinto Leite IPJET (International Platform of Jurist for East Timor) http://un.org A/RES et S/RES -http://arso.org Carlos Ruiz Miguel and Moisés Ponce de León Iglesias The Western Sahara Symposium, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Mai 2012


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