8 Communities 1. Lower Similkameen Indian Band 2. Upper Similkameen Indian Band 3. Osoyoos Indian Band 4. Penticton Indian Band 5. Westbank First Nation 6. Okanagan Indian Band 7. Upper Nicola Band 8. Colville Tribes
Salmon Integral to Okanagan Culture
Commercial Salmon Fisheries U.S. (1870s) Historical decisions did not consider importance to Okanagan fisheries – Mainstem Columbia River Dams (1933) – Grand Coulee Dam blocks access to Upper Columbia (1938) – Grand Coulee Dam Fish Maintenance Project ( ) – Columbia River Treaty (1961) – Okanagan River Channelization and salmon Access in Okanagan River restricted (McIntyre Dam -1915) History
Sockeye Chinook – COSEWIC designation Steelhead – Present Coho – extirpated Sturgeon - ??? Lamprey- ??? What is left?
Background: Okanagan Sockeye Okanagan Wenatchee ARROW LAKES Columbia River sub-basins historically accessible to sockeye Columbia River sub-basins with present day viable sockeye populations Okanagan sockeye population is one of three remaining Columbia River stocks
History of Okanagan Sockeye
Habitat and Fish Passage: McIntyre Dam Before After
Initiated by the Okanagan Nation in 1996 COBTWG (Central Okanagan Basin Technical Working Group) 12 Year Reintroduction Program ( ) into Skaha Lake Adaptive management framework Funded by Grant and Chelan County Public Utility District (Columbia hydro mitigation) Stepwise approach prior to Okanagan Lake Extensive Monitoring Decision at end of program for passage Program focused now on not if but how many Looking at fishway designs Skaha Lake sockeye Reintroduction Program Overview
Key questions include (not limited to): What impacts will sockeye have on existing kokanee stocks? What components of the food web and physical environment most strongly control the production of sockeye and kokanee? What are the effects on the existing Osoyoos sockeye population? Program Overview: Key Questions ?
Summary of Results to Date Results from monitoring impacts of sockeye reintroduction are promising so far Relatively good juvenile abundance, growth, and survival Low impact to resident kokanee Increased understanding that Mysis shrimp are driving the foodwebs Increased Okanagan River sockeye escapement in recent years, but many factors involved and we expect to see some smaller runs in the near future
Why Hatchery? Program requirements for Sockeye Project was to push in-lake capacity of Skaha Lake Model suggested 1000 fry/ha prior to seeing reduced growth and survival of 0+ Kok Selected 1,750 fry/ha, 3.5 million released fry or 5 million eggs located in Penticton Building to 8 million capacity Skaha 2000 ha lake so about 1.75 million smolts Developed before knowing PUD mitigation requirements Why a Hatchery?
Hatchery planning in Canada? In Canada, there is the Wild Salmon Policy which one of the requirements is to safeguard genetic diversity DFO Salmonid Enhancement Program (SEP) guidelines PUDs require an HGMP - Okanagan sockeye HGMP Hosted workshop of U.S./Canadian expertise to: 1.Develop HGMP 2.See what we could be collecting now to help with long term planning 3.Look at our broodstock collection and fry release methods and suggestions for improvements of program overall Hatchery Planning in Canada?
Hatchery planning in Canada? Stock recovery management – Segregated versus integrated? 1, 2, 3 populations in the Okanagan (Osoyoos, Skaha, Okanagan) – Other systems (e.g. Lake Cle Elum – Okanagan/Wenatchee)? – Long term how to manage harvest? Okanagan Nation – Focus on restoration – Not going to get all habitat and production back, how will hatchery contribution be used for harvest? PUDs – As we recover, what happens if we dont need hatchery for Skaha? Okanagan? – As we increase sockeye, how does this affect mitigation requirements? Hatchery questions?
How are the sockeye run doing? Experiment Begins
Why Hatchery? Many Factors: Cultural ceremonies – headwater, winter dances, first salmon Habitat – water management, habitat restoration Harvest – Snake River sockeye limitations? Hydro – Judge Redden orders Ocean survival hatchery contribution Why a the increase?
Food fisheries/culture Salmon feast at Okanagan Falls Salmon in diet Revitalizing a fishery Cultural ceremonies
Starting to see benefits-economic and recreational fisheries
Its not just a sockeyeSharing a StoryCertification Traditional/responsible trade Changing attitude on river fish in Canada Moving fisheries inland