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Anti-Corruption Student Network in SEE Student Union of Serbia Dragan Mihajlovic Project Coordinator Bishkek, November 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Anti-Corruption Student Network in SEE Student Union of Serbia Dragan Mihajlovic Project Coordinator Bishkek, November 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anti-Corruption Student Network in SEE Student Union of Serbia Dragan Mihajlovic Project Coordinator Bishkek, November 2004

2 Content About Student Union of Serbia About Student Union of Serbia Higher education in Serbia and its reform Higher education in Serbia and its reform Perception on student role Perception on student role SUS activity in the filed of reform – projects SUS activity in the filed of reform – projects Anti-Corruption Student Network in SEE Anti-Corruption Student Network in SEE Survey Survey Regulations Regulations Campaign Campaign Conclusion Conclusion

3 About Student Union of Serbia Umbrella organization for 67 faculty and university Unions Umbrella organization for 67 faculty and university Unions Beginnings – 1992 Faculty of Law in Belgrade Beginnings – 1992 Faculty of Law in Belgrade Vision – European education in European Serbia Vision – European education in European Serbia Mission – struggle for higher education reform Mission – struggle for higher education reform – Improvement of student standard – protection of students rights and interests – protection of students rights and interests – creating student pluralism – creating student pluralism From our history of struggle for society and university reform From our history of struggle for society and university reform - Student protest 1996/97 and University protest Student protest 1996/97 and University protest Anti-war campaign Anti-war campaign Resistance movement! - Resistance movement! - Campaign Choose elections Campaign Choose elections The National Unions of Student in Europe, Full membership in ESIB - The National Unions of Student in Europe, 1999

4 About higher education in Serbia 50 years of different society system than in Western Europe created: 50 years of different society system than in Western Europe created: HE system not adjusted to changes and challenges of modern European society Period of society and academic isolation during 90is brought: Period of society and academic isolation during 90is brought: Low competitiveness, stagnancy and inefficiency Attack on university autonomy and on free mind Attack on university autonomy and on free mind Repressive Law on HE in Repressive Law on HE in 1998.

5 About HE reform – obstacles & questions Conservative nature of university Conservative nature of university Resistance to radical reform – fear of changes! Resistance to radical reform – fear of changes! Lack of conscience about reform necessity Lack of conscience about reform necessity Difficult situation for students Difficult situation for students Cost of reform and who will fund it Cost of reform and who will fund it State - university vs. autonomy – responsibility State - university vs. autonomy – responsibility

6 Perception of student role Political prosecution of students during 90is Political prosecution of students during 90is Student pluralism does not exist, same as student Parliament Student pluralism does not exist, same as student Parliament Student property ownership is still unresolved ! Student property ownership is still unresolved ! Perception of HE as one-way process Perception of HE as one-way process Student opinion is one of main pillars of internal quality culture Student opinion is one of main pillars of internal quality culture

7 SUS activity in field of reform Students have became a partners in reform process and decision- making process after year 2000 Students have became a partners in reform process and decision- making process after year 2000 SUS organized seminars and conferences: SUS organized seminars and conferences: Pull of the blindfold, produced policy paper Desired university Pull of the blindfold, produced policy paper Desired university At the same level, produced policy paper University in reforms At the same level, produced policy paper University in reforms The teaching of the future training seminar The teaching of the future training seminar SUS participates in the creation of Law proposal SUS participates in the creation of Law proposal SUS is realizing concrete projects in field of reform SUS is realizing concrete projects in field of reform

8 SUS activity in field of reform In 2003 SUS General Assembly adopts the documents In 2003 SUS General Assembly adopts the documents Students and Law on higher education Students and Law on higher education SUS position on Bologna process accession SUS position on Bologna process accession represents results of work in field of higher education reform represents results of work in field of higher education reform represents our position in negotiations about Law on higher education represents our position in negotiations about Law on higher education

9 Concrete projects in field of reform Catalyst project Catalyst project international seminars dealing with Bologna process issues Analyst project Analyst project creation of student evaluation network within SEE National Training Team - NTT National Training Team - NTT trainings in different fields of student organizing for students Student opinion survey Student opinion survey project outcomes reflect student perception of important student issues Anti-Corruption Student Network in Southeastern Europe Anti-Corruption Student Network in Southeastern Europe corruption monitoring, campaigning, analysis of regulations within SEE

10 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE February 2003 – Meeting in Plovdiv, Bulgaria February 2003 – Meeting in Plovdiv, Bulgaria Forming the Network Forming the Network Bulgaria – Bulgaria – Youth Society for Peace and Development of the Balkans Croatia – Croatia – Mathematics Student Society Moldova – Moldova – Students of Invisible College Serbia – Serbia – Student Union of Serbia Initial Aim Initial Aim To gather information on corruption in education and then creating anti- corruption campaign First phase First phase Regional survey among students on corruption in higher education Regulations collection and analysis in Serbia

11 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Goals In long term we want to achieve: In long term we want to achieve: low level of corruption at the Universities in the region low level of corruption at the Universities in the region create transparent HE environment and its institutional and legal framework create transparent HE environment and its institutional and legal framework influence behavior and peoples values by increasing resistance and decreasing willingness to participate in corruption influence behavior and peoples values by increasing resistance and decreasing willingness to participate in corruption In short term we want to: In short term we want to: inform and raise awareness of academic communities (students, professors and administrative staff) and the general public about the level of corruption inform and raise awareness of academic communities (students, professors and administrative staff) and the general public about the level of corruption inform about and make transparent University regulations inform about and make transparent University regulations make, propose, lobby and advocate for regulations with mechanisms for prevention of corruption (Statute Model, Code of Conduct, Students Ombudsperson) make, propose, lobby and advocate for regulations with mechanisms for prevention of corruption (Statute Model, Code of Conduct, Students Ombudsperson) attract students, professors and administrative staff to actively join anti- corruption activities - forming coalition attract students, professors and administrative staff to actively join anti- corruption activities - forming coalition motivate students to use their rights as a way to create more transparent University environment motivate students to use their rights as a way to create more transparent University environment

12 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Defining the problem Denial of its existence Denial of its existence Corruption in education is neglected form Corruption in education is neglected form Unwillingness and no interest in solving the problem Unwillingness and no interest in solving the problem Future representatives of society are growing in rotten and devious system – no integrity Future representatives of society are growing in rotten and devious system – no integrity Education system has broken down – it has become useless Education system has broken down – it has become useless Students are discontent, indolent and demotivated Students are discontent, indolent and demotivated Collapse of socio-political and economical systems Collapse of socio-political and economical systems Degradation of value system Degradation of value system Easy way out Easy way out Vicious circle Vicious circle

13 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Survey To obtain information, opinions, attitudes and perceptions of students as stakeholders on corruption relevant to: To obtain information, opinions, attitudes and perceptions of students as stakeholders on corruption relevant to: Admission Admission Exams Exams Grades Grades Cheating Cheating Administration Administration Textbooks Textbooks Pilot survey, September 2003 – modifications of the questionnaire Pilot survey, September 2003 – modifications of the questionnaire Unified questionnaire with 150 variables Unified questionnaire with 150 variables Training of interviewers Training of interviewers The survey was conducted in November 2003 The survey was conducted in November 2003 SPSS database

14 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Sampling Sample size of >1200 students Sample size of >1200 students Stratification of the sample was based on the number of students: Stratification of the sample was based on the number of students: of university / faculty / year of studies of university / faculty / year of studies admitted to first year / proportionally admitted to first year / proportionally Within one stratum students were selected according to established step (3 to 10) or randomly Within one stratum students were selected according to established step (3 to 10) or randomly The sample was representative and diverse The sample was representative and diverse

15 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Sex

16 Year of birth

17 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Year of studies

18 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Tuition is paid by

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25 Perception of students on the following percentages: Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE

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35 Relation year of studies / have bought textbook is that higher the year the higher the number of bought books Relation year of studies / have bought textbook is that higher the year the higher the number of bought books Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE

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39 Acceptable ways of cheating: Acceptable ways of cheating: Coping Coping Cribs / guns Cribs / guns Paper notes Paper notes Using cheat-sheet Using cheat-sheet Looking at others exam Looking at others exam All are acceptable All are acceptable Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE

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44 Approximately 15% of students have never heard of cheating Approximately 15% of students have never heard of cheating For 45% of them it is acceptable and for the additional 10% every manner of cheating is unacceptable For 45% of them it is acceptable and for the additional 10% every manner of cheating is unacceptable Every third student doesn t pay attention to cheating Every third student doesn t pay attention to cheating If in the position to cheat and not get caught only 1 out of 8 students would reject that possibility and 4 of them would not feel bad after cheating! If in the position to cheat and not get caught only 1 out of 8 students would reject that possibility and 4 of them would not feel bad after cheating! Students pass the responsibility on to the professors when corrupted grading is concerned Students pass the responsibility on to the professors when corrupted grading is concerned 84% of them think that the professors should be harshly punished, but only half of them think that students should also be severely punished. 84% of them think that the professors should be harshly punished, but only half of them think that students should also be severely punished. Students believe that there is a higher rate of bribery in Faculties other than theirs Students believe that there is a higher rate of bribery in Faculties other than theirs Most of students would not report illegal activities because they feel that specific organs do not control the problem of corruption in higher education Most of students would not report illegal activities because they feel that specific organs do not control the problem of corruption in higher education Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE

45 Index of Corruption (Serbia only) Average Average Male Female Male Female Faculty of Civil Engineering Faculty of Civil Engineering Faculty of Philology / Faculty of Law Faculty of Philology / Faculty of Law Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medical Sciences Faculty of Philosophy Faculty of Philosophy Faculty of Technical Sciences Faculty of Technical Sciences Faculty of Mathematical Sciences Faculty of Mathematical Sciences

46 Year of admission 1997 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 22.3 Tuition paid by State – 22.5 State – 22.5 Student – 28.3 Student – 28.3 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE

47 Place of stay in the town of study Your own house – 26.7 Your own house – 26.7 In rented room/apartment – 25.1 In rented room/apartment – 25.1 In relatives home – 24.7 In relatives home – 24.7 In parents home – 24.1 In parents home – 24.1 Coming for exams – 21.2 Coming for exams – 21.2 In student dormitory – 21.1 In student dormitory – 21.1 Financial state Rich – 30.4 Rich – 30.4 Middle class – 23.1 Middle class – 23.1 Poor – 24.7 Poor – 24.7 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE

48 Different ways of corruption became an acceptable and normal way of conducting affairs in all area of life, including higher education Different ways of corruption became an acceptable and normal way of conducting affairs in all area of life, including higher education They do not see beyond short-come benefits and thus there is not very much interest and concern by the problem They do not see beyond short-come benefits and thus there is not very much interest and concern by the problem Stakeholders are reluctant to change their life style – keeping the status quo Stakeholders are reluctant to change their life style – keeping the status quo Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE

49 Recommendation Only educating and pointing out the consequences of such acts in modern society of the 21 st century can overcome this problem Only educating and pointing out the consequences of such acts in modern society of the 21 st century can overcome this problem We should not only threaten with sanctions We should not only threaten with sanctions Point out that in future office appointments knowledge will have a more significant role Point out that in future office appointments knowledge will have a more significant role Cheating on exams is in that respect practically cheating on oneself Cheating on exams is in that respect practically cheating on oneself Going back to the Faculties" Going back to the Faculties" Acquainting the students to their rights and duties Acquainting the students to their rights and duties

50 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Creating campaign, lobbing and advocating for reform of higher education by modifying and changing: Creating campaign, lobbing and advocating for reform of higher education by modifying and changing: teaching methods, to become more interactive, small groups and using different methods, and teaching methods, to become more interactive, small groups and using different methods, and examining methods to more transparent, objective, open to external control, unified for all students and professors examining methods to more transparent, objective, open to external control, unified for all students and professors Motivating students to study and come back to establish new academic values and further building of civil society Motivating students to study and come back to establish new academic values and further building of civil society

51 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Regulations Defining the problem Defining the problem Functioning of Faculties is constituted by their regulations: Statutes and their additional and accessory documents Functioning of Faculties is constituted by their regulations: Statutes and their additional and accessory documents Regulations dont deal with newly and accustomed corruption-relevant specific situations, which results in insecurity and instability Regulations dont deal with newly and accustomed corruption-relevant specific situations, which results in insecurity and instability Regulations are not giving the basis for administration to deal with corruption, so the problem is widely ignored, not defined and mentioned in regulations Regulations are not giving the basis for administration to deal with corruption, so the problem is widely ignored, not defined and mentioned in regulations Regulations are too general, vague, unavailable, mystified and useless for fighting corruption Regulations are too general, vague, unavailable, mystified and useless for fighting corruption

52 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Goals To collected and make regulations transparent To collected and make regulations transparent To analyze in order to determinate weak points To analyze in order to determinate weak points To write down, redefine, add and modernize, in order to fill out the legislation vacuum, while being precise, with a unique form, similar content and with mechanisms of outside control To write down, redefine, add and modernize, in order to fill out the legislation vacuum, while being precise, with a unique form, similar content and with mechanisms of outside controlTasks Creating Regulations Database Creating Regulations Database Forming Regulation Teams Forming Regulation Teams Report on National HE Regulations Analysis Report on National HE Regulations Analysis The Model of Anti-Corruption Regulations The Model of Anti-Corruption Regulations National implementation National implementation

53 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Campaign Defining the problem Defining the problem Survey finings Survey finings Regulation analysis Regulation analysis Tasks: Tasks: Create Anti-Corruption Alliance on Universities that will perform anti-corruption activities Create Anti-Corruption Alliance on Universities that will perform anti-corruption activities Distribute strategically information on corruption in HE that will be starting point of anti-corruption activities Distribute strategically information on corruption in HE that will be starting point of anti-corruption activities National implementation and strategy of anti-corruption coordination National implementation and strategy of anti-corruption coordination

54 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Principles of our approach are: Positive Positive Optimistic Optimistic Decentralized Decentralized Transparent Transparent Independent from political parties Independent from political parties Focused Focused Clear Clear Encouragement Encouragement Awareness Awareness Promoting knowledge Promoting knowledge Reforms in HE Reforms in HE

55 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Target groups: Students - primarily the resistant to corruption ones and unaccustomed to corruption in HE – new/first – year students Students - primarily the resistant to corruption ones and unaccustomed to corruption in HE – new/first – year students Professors Professors Administrative staff Administrative staff but also Decision makers Decision makers

56 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Joint Activities and Products Joint Survey Results SPSS Database - December, 2004 Joint Survey Results SPSS Database - December, 2004 Report on Corruption in HE on a Regional Level - January, 2005 Report on Corruption in HE on a Regional Level - January, 2005 Name of Campaign, Logo and Poster - January, 2005 Name of Campaign, Logo and Poster - January, 2005 Press conference - March, 2005 Press conference - March, 2005 Web site - March, 2005 Web site - March, 2005 Admission Exam Action - June, 2005 Admission Exam Action - June, 2005 Action of Anti-Corruption Squad in an Exam Period - June, 2005 Action of Anti-Corruption Squad in an Exam Period - June, 2005 Student Orientation Manual - October, 2005 Student Orientation Manual - October, 2005 Continuing lobbying Continuing lobbying

57 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE National activities Round tables Round tables Public discussions Public discussions Public debates Public debates Street actions Street actions etc. etc. Monitoring, documenting and evaluation

58 Anti Corruption Student Network in SEE Conclusion Survey results Survey results Regulations analysis Regulations analysis Campaign – lobbying Campaign – lobbying Corruption monitoring Corruption monitoring

59 Thank you for your attention


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