Presentation on theme: "By Dr Lewis and Professor Blake. For Kant, acting purely from emotion or outcome was not a sufficient on its own to deem an action a good one. For him,"— Presentation transcript:
For Kant, acting purely from emotion or outcome was not a sufficient on its own to deem an action a good one. For him, morality was a priori. He believed in two worlds: Phenomenal realm- Inhabited by Animals; driven by instincts, lust and desires. Behave in accordance to the empirical realm of cause and effect. Noumenal realm- Inhabited by God and Angels; driven by reason. Humans exist in both realms, aware of both reason and instinct
The chaotic sensations of the outer world are ordered by out mind by categories of thought. An example if Reason which is subdivided: Pure Reason- What is the case Practical Reason- What ought to be done In order for human beings to have a moral experience, practical reason must issue imperatives to the will. This is how moral judgment is made.
Good Will, or intention, is the valuable thing in itself, regardless of the consequences. Good intention and respect for moral law makes an action morally good. Duty- Something which you work out through reason and consequently its something that applies universally. The action is good to do because it is good to do. Good Will + Duty= A good moral action
Hypothetical Imperative- Deciding to do an action based on what its outcome will be. Categorical imperative- Doing an action because your absolute and universal sense of moral duty says you should do this. There are 3 formulations of the categorical imperative: We must act on what we feel everyone should also do You must never use someone as a means as their abilities as a rational being makes them too valuable to deisrespect. Act as if you are a citizen in a country of autonomous individuals. Everyone should have the right to be self governing.
Natural Law- Everyone has a natural sense that good is to be done and evil avoided Natural Laws are universal and unchangeable. By using God-given reason to follow the right course of action a human is putting themselves in touch with natural law. Natural law is understood by reflecting on human nature and rationally working out what leads to happiness.
We have a need to understand the principles of natural law so that the more we understand ourselves the more we understand Gods purpose and how we should behave. This ensures that we seek the good and turn from evil- Synderesis.
Aristotle categorised different species according to their nature. Ones nature determines the type of creature one becomes. The distinctive feature of human nature is the ability to be rational. So by following reason, as opposed to desires, humanity will be able to fulfill their natural, intended end purpose
Aquinas developed Aristotle's ideas but essentially added God. Essentialist Foundation; Essence prior to existence. The imago dei (ideal plan for humans) exist within the divine mind before creation. Good is fulfilling ones essence You fulfil your essence by living a life according to Gods plan Sin is falling short of the essence through misuse of free will.
To Live To Learn To Reproduce To live in an ordered society To worship God. If you follow these and use these to make decisions you will fulfil your essence