Presentation on theme: "Ryan Cotterell & James Brenner Structure of English"— Presentation transcript:
1Ryan Cotterell & James Brenner Structure of English Grimm’s LawRyan Cotterell & James BrennerStructure of English
2Proto Indo-European (PIE) PIE is the commonly accepted “umbrella” ancestor to the Indo-European languages.Its origins are debated as no substantial record of its history exists.Most reputable theories date its main existence somewhere between the 7th and 4th millenniums B.C.Its regions of origin are generally placed in far Eastern Europe around Ukraine, the Balkans, and other Black Sea Regions.By the 3rd millennium it had probably split into mostly non-mutually intelligible daughter dialects.
3Proto – Germanic (PGmc) Refers to the general ancestor language of all Germanic languages (English, Dutch, German, Swedish, etc.)Generally accepted that it was not identifiable as a distinct dialect before 500 B.C.By 200 A.D., the Germanic dialect was classified as “Late – Proto…” or “Late – Common…”
4Historical Context of PIE and PGmc PIE was spoken in a basically pure form until at least the 4thmillenium B.C.No exact date can be given to specifically separate Proto-Germanic from its earlier rootsHowever it is clear that PGmc was was not classifiable as a distinct dialect before about 500 B.C. (about 2,500 years ago)Thus, that leaves at least 3,000 years (roughly 4,000 B.C. to 500 B.C.) that sound changes could have occurred from PIE to PGmcThe most specific and identifiable of which probably occurred within the 1st millennium B.C.
5Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) Life + Background A German lawyer, writer, and linguist.He is most popularly remembered for his fairy tales, recorded with his brother Wilhelm.However his most influential work was actually in linguistics with his compilation of the German Dictionary and his identification of the sound shift now named after him.
6Grimm’s Work and Career EducationCareerHe completed under studies at public schools in KasselWent to the University of Marburg where he studied lawUpon attending the lectures of Savigny, Grimm was introduced to the literary sources and historical texts of the lectures.It was here that Grimm’s interest in the history of languages beganWorked at several libraries (Kassel, Gottingen)Held positions of Professor and member of the Academy of Sciences in BerlinWas almost always accompanied by his brotherEssentially, his jobs gave him continual access to resources to further his work in linguistics and its history
7Karl Verner (1846-1896) Life and Background Danish Linguist Conducted research in many languages including Slavic and Semitic languages.His work in Germanic linguistics was actually limited compared to some of his other studies.However his recognition of the pattern to one of the exceptions of Grimm’s law, dubbed “Verner’s Law,” remains his most famous work.
11Centum-Satem isogloss Satem languages delabialized the labiovelars, merging the labiovelars with the pure velarsSatem languages also assibilated the palatalsCentum languages depalatalized the palatals, merging them with the pure velars
12Grimm’s Law The major sound change discovered in linguistics Instrumental to the creation of the Comparative MethodEstablished a regular set of correspondences between the Germanic language and the rest of the Centum IsoglossDivided into three parts
13Part One *t þ *k x h *kw xw hw The voiceless stops change into voiceless fricatives*p f*t þ*k x h*kw xw hw
14ExamplesPortuguese pé Greek pūs Portuguese três Greek tria Portuguese cão Greek kyon Portuguese que Icelandic hvaðEnglish footIcelandic fóturEnglish threeIcelandic þrírEnglish houndIcelandic hundurEnglish what
15Part Two *d t *g k *gw kw Voiced stops change into voiceless stops*b p*d t*g k*gw kw
16Examples Latin berber Latin decem Latin gelu English warp Swedish värpa English ten Swedish tio English cold Swedish kall
17Part Three *dh d *gh g *gwh gw Voiced aspirated stops loose aspiration*bh b*dh d*gh g*gwh gw
18Doublets in Englishfoot mother eight fire three heart knee five kin hemppedal maternal octagon pyromania triple cardiac genuflect pentagon genus cannabis hostel
19Verner’s Law Grimm’s law contained exceptions Verner found a pattern among the exceptionsVerner’s Law additionally accounted for the occasional mutation of *s z in the Germanic Languages.The ordering of Verner’s Law and Grimm’s Law is unclear
20Verner’s Law *t d *k g *kw gw *s z 1. Grimm’s law only applies to initial consonantsand consonants following a stressed syllable2. In all other circumstances voiceless obstruents become voiced*p b*t d*k g*kw gw*s z
21Evidence of Verner’s Law in English PIE root *duk (to lead) – inflection stressedducere (Latin)tug (English)Grimm’s law predicts /tux/Verner’s law explains the final /g/
22Works ConsultedAshliman, D.L.. "Grimm Brothers' Home Page". October 22, 2008 <http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm.html>."Grimm's Law and Verner's Law". Concordi College. October 22, 2008 <http://www.cord.edu/faculty/sprunger/e315/grimm.htm>."Grimm's Law". Univeristy of North Carolina. October 22, 2008 <http://asstudents.unco.edu/faculty/tbredehoft/UNCclasses/ENG419/Grimm.html>."Proto Indo European". UTSA. October 22, 2008 <http://colfa.utsa.edu/drinka/pie/pie.html>.Ringe, Donald. From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 2006.