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Linear Elastic Constitutive Solid Model Develop Force-Deformation Constitutive Equation in the Form of Stress-Strain Relations Under the Assumptions: Solid Recovers Original Configuration When Loads Are Removed Linear Relation Between Stress and Strain Neglect Rate and History Dependent Behavior Include Only Mechanical Loadings Thermal, Electrical, Pore-Pressure, and Other Loadings Can Also Be Included As Special Cases

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Typical One-Dimensional Stress-Strain Behavior Tensile Sample Steel Cast Iron Aluminum Applicable Region for Linear Elastic Behavior = E

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Linear Elastic Material Model Generalized Hookes Law or 36 Independent Elastic Constants with

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Anisotropy and Nonhomogeneity Anisotropy - Differences in material properties under different directions. Materials like wood, crystalline minerals, fiber-reinforced composites have such behavior. Nonhomogeneity - Spatial differences in material properties. Soil materials in the earth vary with depth, and new functionally graded materials (FGMs) are now being developed with deliberate spatial variation in elastic properties to produce desirable behaviors. (Body-Centered Crystal) (Fiber Reinforced Composite) (Hexagonal Crystal) Gradation Direction Typical Wood Structure Note Particular Material Symmetries Indicated by the Arrows

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Isotropic Materials Although many materials exhibit non-homogeneous and anisotropic behavior, we will primarily restrict our study to isotropic solids. For this case, material response is independent of coordinate rotation Generalized Hookes Law - Lamés constant - shear modulus or modulus of rigidity

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Isotropic Materials Inverted Form - Strain in Terms of Stress

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Physical Meaning of Elastic Moduli Simple Tension Hydrostatic Compression Pure Shear p p p

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Relations Among Elastic Constants

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Typical Values of Elastic Moduli for Common Engineering Materials E (GPa) (GPa) k(GPa) (10 -6 / o C) Aluminum68.90.3425.754.671.825.5 Concrete27.60.2011.57.715.311 Cooper89.60.3433.47193.318 Glass68.90.2527.6 45.98.8 Nylon28.30.4010.14.0447.2102 Rubber0.00190.4990.654x10 -3 0.326 200 Steel2070.2980.211116413.5

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Hookes Law in Cylindrical Coordinates x3x3 x1x1 x2x2 r z dr z r r rz z d

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Hookes Law in Spherical Coordinates R x3x3 x1x1 x2x2 R R R

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