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© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1 History and Structure Chapter 5 Policing:
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2 English Policing American policing is based on English roots. English law enforcement began with hue and cry.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 3 Alfred the Greats system 9th-10th Century mutual pledge England
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 4 mutual pledge system tithing - group of ten (10) families tithing man - leader or chief of tithing England
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 5 Hundred = ten tithings = one hundred families England chief constable - head of the hundred
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 Constable: considered the first real police officer appointed by local nobleman in charge of weapons for the hundred England
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 7 Shire A geographic area equivalent to our county. Hundreds were grouped into Shires. England was divided into 52 Shires. Shire-Reeve was the antecedent of modern day sheriff.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8 England 1272-1307 set up curfew and night watch program bailiffs - night watchmen to enforce curfew watch and ward
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 9 Watch and Ward The name given to first night watch in cities and towns. They operated from sundown to sunrise. They protected property against fire. They guarded the gates of city. They arrested those who committed offenses.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 10 Statute of Winchester-1285 It created the watch and ward in cities and towns. It drafted eligible males to serve. It institutionalized the hue and cry. Citizens had to maintain weapons in order to answer the call to arms.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 11 England - 1750 The Industrial Revolution brought many new people to the big cities. Crime increased in cities and highways leading to cities. Civilian associations cropped up and began creating their own private police forces.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 12 Bow Street Runners established 1750 patrolled streets and highways leading to London Sir Henry Fielding - one of the founders first real detective unit
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 13 London Metropolitan Police 1829 - Parliament passed bill - creates London police Sir Robert Peel - Home Secretary 1,000 officers called bobbies uniformed structured along military lines
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 14 American Law Enforcement Colonists brought systems from Europe when they emigrated to colonies. The shire-reeve was responsible for law enforcement in the counties. The constable was responsible for law enforcement in towns. Before the Revolution, both were appointed by Crown.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 15 American Frontier vast and wild until late 19 th century natural haven for outlaws and bandits citizen posses and vigilantes - the law
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 16 Policing Americas Cities 1636 - Boston New York - known as Rattle Watch because of rattles they carried and shook while they patrolled
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 17 1658 - paid watchmen in New York 1693 - first uniformed police officer 1731 - first precinct station in New York Policing Americas Cities
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 18 Policing Americas Cities 1833 - Philadelphia is the first to initiate a police force. 1844 - New York is the first to establish a unified day/night police force. 1865 - Massachusetts creates the first state police force. 1866 - Detroit creates first detective unit.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 19 American Policing 1920-1933 This was the Era of Prohibition and widespread corruption of police.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 20 1960s-1970s Civil rights movement and anti-Vietnam war demonstrations impacted on police operations and enforcement. American Policing
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 21 1967 - LEAA was formed to assist police departments in acquiring the latest in technology and adopt new enforcement methods. American Policing
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 22 LEAA - funded many police research projects Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment American Policing
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 23 Three Levels ( jurisdictions) federal state local American Policing
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 24 Federal Law Enforcement 1789 first federal law enforcement agency - Revenue Cutter Service patrolled shores of U.S. to prevent smuggling and to ensure collection of revenue
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 25 21 separate federal law enforcement agencies in eight government agencies Federal Law Enforcement
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 26 Other Federal Agencies 1789 - U.S. Marshals 1862 - Internal Revenue Service 1865 - Secret Service 1891 - Immigration and Naturalization 1908 - Bureau of Investigation - later to be renamed F.B.I. in 1930
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 27 Other Federal Agencies 1914 The Bureau of Narcotics & Dangerous Drugs combined with other agencies and was renamed Drug Enforcement Administration in 1973.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 28 Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Department of the Treasury 1.Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms 2.Internal Revenue Service 3.U.S. Custom Service 4.U.S. Secret Service 5.Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 29 Department of Justice 1.Bureau of Prisons 2.Drug Enforcement Administration 3.Federal Bureau of Investigation 4.U.S. Marshals Service 5.Immigration and Naturalization Service Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 30 Department of Interior 1.Fish and Wildlife Service 2.National Park Service 3.U.S. Park Police Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 31 Department of Defense Criminal Investigation Division Office of Special Investigations Naval Investigative Service Defense Criminal Investigator Service Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 32 Department of Transportation U.S. Coast Guard General Services Administration Federal Protective Services U.S. Postal Service Postal Inspections Service Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Police Department Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 33 Federal Bureau of Investigation 1924 - J. Edgar Hoover is appointed Director. 1924 - Identification Division is created to collect fingerprint files. 1930 - F.B.I. begins collecting data for Uniformed Crime Report publication. 1932 - Crime laboratory is established.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 34 State Law Enforcement 1835 Texas Rangers: They are believed to be the first state police force. Military unit is responsible for border patrol. They apprehend Mexican cattle rustlers.
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 35 State Law Enforcement Two Models: centralized model decentralized model
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 36 Local Agencies-Municipal approx. 13,580 different departments approx. 420,000 sworn police officers approx. 100,000 civilian employees largest - New York - approx. 36,813 police officers smallest – 3,409 departments with 1 sworn police officer or only part- time officers
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 37 Local Agencies-County approx. 3,100 sheriff departments approx. 155,000 full-time officers approx. 89,000 civilian employees largest - Los Angeles Sheriffs Dept. with approx. 2,110 sworn officers and 4,880 civilian employees
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 38 49 state police departments approx. 52,000 full-time state police officers approx. 26,000 civilian employees major role - control traffic on highway system State Law Enforcement
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 39 Private Protective Services Nearly 2,000,000 people are estimated to be working in private security today. Types of private security services: company guards airport security bank guards executive protection
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 40 Those self-employed individuals and privately funded business entities and organizations providing security- related services to specific clientele for a fee… Private Protective Services
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 41 … for the individual or entity that retains or employs them, or for themselves, in order to protect their persons, private property, or interests from various hazards. Private Protective Services
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 42 Types of Private Security Services: store/mall security school security nuclear facility security hospital security automated teller machine services railroad detectives loss prevention specialists computer/information security Private Protective Services
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 43 Security Bureau, Inc. Wackenhut Corp. Guardsmark, Inc. American Protective Services Globe Security Private Protective Services
© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 44 Wells Fargo Guard Services Advance Security, Inc. Pinkertons, Inc. Allied Security, Inc. Burns International Security Services Private Protective Services
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