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Boyles Law 1 atm 4 Liters As the pressure on a gas increases 2 atm 2 Liters As the pressure on a gas increases - the volume decreases Pressure and volume.

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Presentation on theme: "Boyles Law 1 atm 4 Liters As the pressure on a gas increases 2 atm 2 Liters As the pressure on a gas increases - the volume decreases Pressure and volume."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Boyles Law 1 atm 4 Liters As the pressure on a gas increases 2 atm 2 Liters As the pressure on a gas increases - the volume decreases Pressure and volume are inversely related

3 Boyles Law Timberlake, Chemistry 7 th Edition, page 253

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5 Boyles Law Timberlake, Chemistry 7 th Edition, page 253 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (Temperature is held constant)

6 P vs. V (Boyles law) At constant temperature and amount of gas, pressure decreases as volume increases (and vice versa). Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

7 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. Digital Text Digital Text

8 Boyle's Law If n and T are constant, then PV = (nRT) = k This means, for example, that Pressure goes up as Volume goes down. Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691) Son of Early of Cork, Ireland. A bicycle pump is a good example of Boyle's law. As the volume of the air trapped in the pump is reduced, its pressure goes up, and air is forced into the tire.

9 As the pressure on a gas increases As the pressure on a gas increases - the volume decreases Pressure and volume are inversely related 1 atm 4 Liters 2 atm 2 Liters

10 As the pressure on a gas increases - the volume decreases Pressure and volume are inversely related 2 atm 2 Liters

11 Boyles Law Data

12 Pressure-Volume Relationship 2.5 250 200 150 100 50 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Volume (L) Pressure (kPa) (P 1,V 1 ) (P 2,V 2 ) (P 3,V 3 ) P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2 = P 3 x V 3 = 100 L x kPa P 1 = 100 kPa V 1 = 1.0 L P 2 = 50 kPa V 2 = 2.0 L P 3 = 200 kPa V 3 = 0.5 L

13 P vs. V (Boyles Data) Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 404

14 Pressure vs. Volume for a Fixed Amount of Gas (Constant Temperature) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Pressure Volume PV (Kpa) (mL) 100 500 50,000 150 333 49,950 200 250 50,000 250 200 50,000 300 166 49,800 350 143 50,500 400 125 50,000 450 110 49,500 Volume (mL) 100 200 300 400 500 600 Pressure (KPa)

15 Pressure vs. Reciprocal of Volume for a Fixed Amount of Gas (Constant Temperature) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Pressure Volume 1/V (Kpa) (mL) 100 500 0.002 150 333 0.003 200 250 0.004 250 200 0.005 300 166 0.006 350 143 0.007 400 125 0.008 450 110 0.009 1 / Volume (1/L) 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 Pressure (KPa)

16 Boyles Law Illustrated Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 404

17 b The pressure and volume of a gas are inversely related at constant mass & temp Boyles Law P V PV = k Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem Volume (mL) Pressure (torr) P. V (mL. torr) 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 760.0 379.6 253.2 191.0 7.60 x 10 3 7.59 x 10 3 7.60 x 10 3 7.64 x 10 3

18 Boyles Law Pressure and Volume of a Gas Boyles Law A quantity of gas under a pressure of 106.6 kPa has a volume of 380 dm 3. What is the volume of the gas at standard pressure, if the temperature is held constant? P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2 (106.6 kPa) x (380 dm 3 ) = (103.3 kPa) x (V 2 ) V 2 = 400 dm 3

19 PV Calculation (Boyles Law) A quantity of gas has a volume of 120 dm 3 when confined under a pressure of 93.3 kPa at a temperature of 20 o C. At what pressure will the volume of the gas be 30 dm 3 at 20 o C? P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2 (93.3 kPa) x (120 dm 3 ) = (P 2 ) x (30 dm 3 ) P 2 = 373.2 kPa

20 Volume and Pressure Two-liter flask One-liter flask The molecules are closer together; the density is doubled. The average molecules hits the wall twice as often. The total number of impacts with the wall is doubled and the pressure is doubled. Bailar, Jr, Moeller, Kleinberg, Guss, Castellion, Metz, Chemistry, 1984, page 101

21 Volume and Pressure Two-liter flask The molecules are closer together; the density is doubled. The average molecules hits the wall twice as often. The total number of impacts with the wall is doubled and the pressure is doubled. One-liter flask Bailar, Jr, Moeller, Kleinberg, Guss, Castellion, Metz, Chemistry, 1984, page 101

22 Bell Jar Demonstrations Effect of Pressure on Volume (Shaving Cream in a Bell jar) VIDEO http://www.unit5.org/chemistry/GasLaws.html


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