Presentation on theme: "First Amendment Center"— Presentation transcript:
1First Amendment Center http://www.davidlhudsonjrbooks.com Bill of RightsDavid L. Hudson Jr. –First Amendment Center
2First 10 Amendments to the Constitution Added in December 1791Battle between Federalists and Anti-federalists … James Madison called Father of the Bill of Rights because he used the Bill of Rights to save the Constitution.
3State Action “Congress shall make no law …” Applies to government (federal, state or local)Public school qualifies; private school does not
4First Amendment“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.”
6Freedom of ReligionEstablishment Clause --- provides for degree of separation between church and state; we just can’t agree on how much separationFree Exercise Clause – protects person’s rights to freely practice religion … but what if person’s religion conflicts with generally applicable law
7Freedom of Religion (cont.) Establishment ClauseWhat about school-sponsored prayer? Moment of silence laws? Prayer at high school football games? Teachers wearing religious jewelry? What about the posting of the Ten Commandments on government property?
8Other Establishment Clause issues Bible clubs at schools – Equal Access ActReligious music at school concertsFaculty leading students in prayer at meetings
9Different Interpretations See pBroad interpretationNarrow interpretationLiteral interpretation
10Freedom of SpeechApplies to more than just spoken word (certain forms of symbolic speech)Not all types of speech are protected (obscenity, perjury, incitement to imminent lawless action)Not all forms of speech – even those that are protected – are treated the same (political speech favored over commercial speech)Speech protection depends on context (school, military, employment, prison – reduced level of free-speech protection)
11Justifications for free speech See p. 208Individual self-fulfillmentDemocratic self-governanceSafety valveEssential for protection of all other rights
12Most fundamental free-speech principle No viewpoint discrimination (Tinker black armband case)No content discriminationNo vagueness or overbreadth
13When is a law vague? When people don’t know the meaning of a law? Fear of arbitrary enforcementPeople deserve notice
14When is a law too broad? See p. 212 When law sweeps too broadly … “banning all political protests”
15Freedom of the PressHistorically served as an additional check upon the government (called the fourth estate- check the other three branches of government)No prior restraints (or very few) – gov. can’t license the pressEven libel laws must comport with the First Amendment
16AssemblyEssential to women’s suffrage movement and the civil rights movementFocus on word “peaceably”Question of free-speech zones
17PetitionDeep historical rootsMagna CartaDeclaration of Independence
18Second Amendment“A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.”Individual or collective right(Scalia’s decision in Heller --- individual right)
19Bill of RightsMuch of the Bill of Rights deals with protections for those accused of crimes.Fourth AmendmentFifth AmendmentSixth AmendmentEighth Amendment
20Fourth Amendment“The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.”
21When is a Search “Reasonable” A warrant backed up by probable cause;Conduct that does not violate a defendant’s “reasonable expectation of privacy.”
22Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Katz v. United States (1967)Reasonable expectation of privacy test: (1) Did the defendant have an actual, subjective expectation of privacy; (2) Does society regard this expectation of privacy as objectively reasonable?
23Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement Plain View doctrine: Rationale of "plain-view" doctrine is that if contraband is left in open view and is observed by police officer from lawful vantage point, there has been no invasion of legitimate expectation of privacy and thus no "search" within meaning of the Fourth Amendment.
24Probable CauseText (p. 226): “Probable cause is defined as more than mere suspicion.”The task of the issuing magistrate is simply to make a practical, common-sense decision whether, given all the circumstances set forth in the affidavit before him, including the "veracity" and "basis of knowledge" of persons supplying hearsay information, there is a fair probability that contraband or evidence of a crime will be found in a particular place.”
25What If There is a Fourth Amendment Violation? The exclusionary rule – material searched and seized in violation of the Fourth Amendment is suppressed. Justice Benjamin Cardozo famously described it as “the criminal goes free because the constable has blundered.”
26Why Have the Exclusionary Rule? To compel respect for the constitutional guaranty in the only effectively available way – by removing the incentive to disregard it.” (Text – p )
27Story of Dollree Mapp See text p. 226-227 Donald King makes a phone call – house contains bomb-making material … instead find dirty books
28Good Faith Exception to the Exclusionary Rule The exclusionary rule bars the prosecution from using in its case-in-chief evidence obtained during a search that violated the Fourth Amendment. Under the good faith exception to the exclusionary rule, however, that evidence need not be suppressed when police obtain the evidence through objective good faith reliance on a facially valid warrant that later is found to lack probable cause.
29Fifth Amendment“No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury …; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.”
30Fifth Amendment freedoms Grand JuryDouble jeopardySelf-incrimination (right to remain silent)Due ProcessJust Compensation (Takings Clause)
31Grand JuryGrand jury requirement has not been extended to the states. See text at p. 235 Body of citizens whose duty consists of determining whether probable cause exists in a criminal case to warrant an indictment.
32TennesseeTennessee Rules of Criminal Procedure –“The criminal information has been used in state cases under the provisions of § , but because the Constitution of Tennessee, Art. 1, § 14, provides that no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge but by presentment, indictment or impeachment, its use is limited to those cases in which there is an agreement by the defendant to be bound by its use.”
33Double JeopardyThe underlying idea … is that the State with all its resources and power should not be allowed to make repeated attempts to convict an individual for an alleged offense, thereby subjecting him to embarrassment, expense, and ordeal … as well as enhancing the possibility that even though innocent he may be found guilty.”
34Self-Incrimination Taking the Fifth Miranda Warnings: (1) You have the right to remain silent.(2) Anything you say can be used against you in a court of law.(3) You have the right to an attorney and to have the attorney present during questioning;(4) If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you before any questioning begins.
35Miranda Not Overruled, But Reaffirmed Dickerson v. United States (2000) – “Miranda has become embedded in routine police practice to the point where the warnings have become part of our national culture.”
36Due ProcessTwo basic types: (1) procedural due process and (2) substantive due process.Procedural due process – government gives a fair process (notice and a hearing)Substantive due process – underlying law is rational and not arbitrary
37Substantive Due Process Rochin v. California (1952) – Police methods that shock the conscience violate the due process clause. In Rochin, police burst into dude’s bedroom and physically assaulted him. They took him to hospital and had his stomach pumped.
38Sixth AmendmentIn all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed; which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtained witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.”
39Sixth Amendment freedoms Speedy trialPublic trialTrial by Impartial JuryNoticeConfrontation ClauseCompulsory Process ClauseAssistance of Counsel
40Speedy trialGovernment get on with it – don’t let criminal defendant languish in jail forever. “Justice delayed is justice denied.”Length of the delayYour assertion of your right to a speedy trialReason for the delayPrejudice to you because of the delay
41Trial by jury Trial by jury in all criminal prosecutions. The U.S. Supreme Court wrote that "trial by jury in criminal cases is fundamental to the American scheme of justice."Doesn’t have to be 12 jurors. Williams v. Florida (1970) – 6-member juries constitutional but 5-member juries unconstitutional (Ballew v. Georgia)Tennessee requires 12 jurors (Rule 24 of the Tennessee Rules of Criminal Procedure)
42Ballew v. Georgia (cont.) “recent empirical data suggest that progressively smaller juries are less likely to foster effective group deliberation. At some point, this decline leads to inaccurate fact-finding and incorrect application of the common sense of the community to the facts.”
43Impartial juryJury must be chosen from fair cross-section of the community (Taylor v. Louisiana) – defendant given new trial because women excluded from the jury
44Assistance of Counsel“lawyers in criminal courts are necessities not luxuries.” Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)This decision essentially led to the public defender system. (text p. 229)
45Eighth Amendment“Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.”
46Excessive Bail“need for bail in an unusually high amount is an arbitrary act. Such conduct would inject into our own system of government the very principles of totalitarianism which congress was seeking to guard against in passing the statute under which petitioners have been indicted.”Stack v. Boyle (1951)
47U.S. v. Bajakajian (1998)Hosep Bajakajian attempted to leave the United States without reporting, as required by federal law, that he was transporting more than $10,000 in currency.“We now hold that a punitive forfeiture violates the Excessive Fines Clause if it is grossly disproportional to the gravity of a defendant's offense.” (Justice Clarence Thomas)
48Cruel and Unusual Punishment “Death is different.”“the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society" -- to determine which punishments are so disproportionate as to be cruel and unusual.Curious history of capital punishment: outlawed in 1972 (Furman v. Georgia); reinstated in 1976 (Gregg v. Georgia)
49Recent DecisionsThe Court outlawed the death penalty for those who committed murder when they were juveniles. Roper v. Simmons (2004)The Court outlawed death penalty for the mentally retarded. Atkins v. Virginia (2002).The Court ruled no death penalty even for child rapist in Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008)
50Ninth Amendment“The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.”For many years nothing but a constitutional curiosity.Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
51Tenth Amendment“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”Received renewed appreciation during the Rehnquist Court.