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Moral Law and the Church Law is a rule of conduct enacted by competent authority for the sake of the common good. All law finds its first and ultimate.

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Presentation on theme: "Moral Law and the Church Law is a rule of conduct enacted by competent authority for the sake of the common good. All law finds its first and ultimate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Moral Law and the Church Law is a rule of conduct enacted by competent authority for the sake of the common good. All law finds its first and ultimate truth in the ETERNAL LAW. Law is declared and established by reason as a participation in the providence of the living God, Creator and Redeemer of all. The moral law presupposes the rational order, established among creatures for their good and to serve their final end, by the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Creator. "Such an ordinance of reason is what one calls law." (ccc1951)

2 Moral Law and the Church The moral law is the work of divine wisdom. Its biblical meaning can be defined as Fatherly instruction, God's teaching. It prescribes for man the ways, the rules of conduct that lead to the promised Beatitude It proscribes the ways of evil which turn him away from God and his love. It is at once firm in its precepts and, in its promises, worthy of love. (ccc1950)

3 Moral Law and the Church There are different expressions of the moral law, all of them interrelated: Eternal law The source, in God, of all law Natural law The law written in mans heart Revealed law The Law of the Gospel Civil and ecclesiastical laws. The law regarding social order (ccc1952-1953)

4 Moral Law and the Church The moral law finds its fullness and its unity in Christ. The way of perfection, only he teaches and bestows the justice of God: "For Christ is the end of the law, that every one who has faith may be justified. (ccc1952-1953)

5 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW Man participates in the wisdom and goodness of the Creator who gives him mastery over his acts and the ability to govern himself with a view to the true and the good.

6 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW The Natural Law expresses the original moral sense which enables man to discern by reason the good and the evil, the truth and the lie: The natural law is written and engraved in the soul of each and every man, because it is human reason ordaining him to do good and forbidding him to sin... But this command of human reason would not have the force of law if it were not the voice and interpreter of a higher reason to which our spirit and our freedom must be submitted. (ccc1954)

7 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW The "divine and natural" law shows man the way to follow so as to practice the good and attain his end. The natural law states the first and essential precepts which govern the moral life. It hinges upon the desire for God and submission to him, who is the source and judge of all that is good, as well as upon the sense that the other is one's equal.

8 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW This law is called "natural," not in reference to the nature of irrational beings, but because reason which decrees it properly belongs to human nature: Where then are these rules written, if not in the book of that light we call the truth? In it is written every just law; from it the law passes into the heart of the man who does justice, not that it migrates into it, but that it places its imprint on it, like a seal on a ring that passes onto wax, without leaving the ring.

9 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW The natural law is nothing other than the light of understanding placed in us by God; through it We know what we must do and what we must avoid. God has given this light or law at the creation.

10 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW The natural law, present in the heart of each man and established by reason, is universal in its precepts and its authority extends to all men. It expresses the dignity of the person and determines the basis for his fundamental rights and duties: For there is a true law: right reason. It is in conformity with nature, is diffused among all men, and is immutable and eternal; its orders summon to duty; its prohibitions turn away from offense.... To replace it with a contrary law is a sacrilege; failure to apply even one of its provisions is forbidden; no one can abrogate it entirely. (ccc1956)

11 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW Application of the natural law varies greatly; it can demand reflection that takes account of various conditions of life according to places, times, and circumstances. Nevertheless, in the diversity of cultures, the natural law remains as a rule that binds men among themselves and imposes on them, beyond the inevitable differences, common principles. (ccc1957)

12 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW The natural law is immutable and permanent throughout the variations of history; it subsists under the flux of ideas and customs and supports their progress. The rules that express it remain substantially valid. Even when it is rejected in its very principles, it cannot be destroyed or removed from the heart of man. It always rises again in the life of individuals and societies: Theft is surely punished by your law, O Lord, and by the law that is written in the human heart, the law that iniquity itself does not efface. (ccc1958)

13 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW The natural law, the Creator's very good work Provides the solid foundation on which man can build the structure of moral rules to guide his choices. Provides the indispensable moral foundation for building the human community. Provides the necessary basis for the civil law with which it is connected, –whether by a reflection that draws conclusions from its principles, –or by additions of a positive and juridical nature. (ccc1959)

14 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW The Primary Principle To do good and avoid evil Inclinations of the heart and mind To preserve life To marry and to generate To preserve and educate offspring To search for the truth To live in society To live in peace and harmony To have purpose

15 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW The natural law expresses and lays down the purposes, rights and duties which are based upon the bodily and spiritual nature of the human person. Therefore this law cannot be thought of as simply a set of norms on the biological level; rather it must be defined as the rational order whereby man is called by the Creator to direct and regulate his life and actions and in particular to make use of his body. Instruction on respect for human Life in Its Origins and the Dignity of Procreation

16 THE NATURAL MORAL LAW The precepts of natural law are not perceived by everyone clearly and immediately. In the present situation sinful man needs grace and revelation so moral and religious truths may be known "by everyone with facility, with firm certainty and with no admixture of error." The natural law provides revealed law and grace with a foundation prepared by God and in accordance with the work of the Spirit. (ccc1960)

17 Moral Law and the Church MORAL CONSCIENCE "Deep within his conscience man discovers a law which he has not laid upon himself but which he must obey. Its voice, ever calling him to love and to do what is good and to avoid evil, sounds in his heart at the right moment.... For man has in his heart a law inscribed by God.... His conscience is man's most secret core and his sanctuary. There he is alone with God whose voice echoes in his depths. (ccc1776)

18 Moral Law and the Church ERRONEOUS JUDGMENT A human being must always obey the certain judgment of his conscience. If he were deliberately to act against it, he would condemn himself. Yet it can happen that moral conscience remains in ignorance and makes erroneous judgments about acts to be performed or already committed. This ignorance can often be imputed to personal responsibility. This is the case when a man "takes little trouble to find out what is true and good, or when conscience is by degrees almost blinded through the habit of committing sin." In such cases, the person is culpable for the evil he commits. (ccc1790-1791)

19 Moral Law and the Church ERRONEOUS JUDGMENT Ignorance of Christ and his Gospel Bad example given by others Enslavement to one's passions Assertion of a mistaken notion of autonomy of conscience Rejection of the Church's authority and her teaching Lack of conversion and of charity These can be at the source of errors of judgment in moral conduct. (ccc1792)

20 Moral Law and the Church ERRONEOUS JUDGMENT If - on the contrary - the ignorance is invincible, or the moral subject is not responsible for his erroneous judgment, the evil committed by the person cannot be imputed to him. It remains no less an evil, a privation, a disorder. One must therefore work to correct the errors of moral conscience. (ccc1793)

21 Moral Law and the Church ERRONEOUS JUDGMENT A good and pure conscience is enlightened by true faith, for charity proceeds at the same time "from a pure heart and a good conscience and sincere faith. The more a correct conscience prevails, the more do persons and groups turn aside from blind choice and try to be guided by objective standards of moral conduct. (ccc1794)

22 Revealed Law - The Old Law God, our Creator and Redeemer, chose Israel for himself to be his people and revealed his Law to them, thus preparing for the coming of Christ. The Law of Moses expresses many truths naturally accessible to reason. These are stated and authenticated within the covenant of salvation. (ccc1961)

23 Revealed Law - The Old Law The Old Law is the first stage of revealed Law. Its moral prescriptions are summed up in the Ten Commandments. The precepts of the Decalogue lay the foundations for the vocation of man fashioned in the image of God; they prohibit what is contrary to the love of God and neighbor and prescribe what is essential to it. The Decalogue is a light offered to the conscience of every man to make God's call and ways known to him and to protect him against evil: God wrote on the tables of the Law what men did not read in their hearts. (ccc1962)

24 Revealed Law - The Old Law According to Christian tradition, the Law is holy, spiritual, and good, yet still imperfect. Like a tutor it shows what must be done, but does not of itself give the strength, the grace of the Spirit, to fulfill it. Because of sin, which it cannot remove, it remains a law of bondage. (ccc1963)

25 Revealed Law - The Old Law According to St. Paul, Its special function is to denounce and disclose sin, which constitutes a "law of concupiscence in the human heart. It prepares and disposes the chosen people and each Christian for conversion and faith in the Savior God. It provides a teaching which endures for ever, like the Word of God. (ccc1963)

26 Revealed Law - The Old Law The Old Law is a preparation for the Gospel. "The Law is an instruction on and a prophecy of things to come. The Law is completed by the teaching of the wisdom books and the prophets which set its course toward the New Covenant and the Kingdom of heaven. It prophesies and presages the work of liberation from sin which will be fulfilled in Christ: It provides the New Testament with images, "types," and symbols for expressing the life according to the Spirit. In any case, even though the Old Law prescribed charity, it did not give the Holy Spirit, through whom "Gods charity has been poured into our hearts. (ccc1964)

27 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL The New Law or the Law of the Gospel is the perfection here on earth of the divine law, natural and revealed. It is the work of Christ and is expressed particularly in the Sermon on the Mount. It is also the work of the Holy Spirit and through him it becomes the interior law of charity: "I will establish a New Covenant with the house of Israel.... I will put my laws into their minds, and write them on their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. (ccc1965)

28 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL The New Law is the grace of the Holy Spirit given to the faithful through faith in Christ. It works through charity; It uses the Sermon on the Mount to teach us what must be done And makes use of the sacraments to give us the grace to do it: (ccc1966)

29 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL If anyone should meditate with devotion and clear judgement or understanding on the sermon our Lord gave on the mount, as we read in the Gospel of Saint Matthew, he will doubtless find there... the perfect way of the Christian life.... This sermon contains... all the precepts needed to shape ones life. (ccc1966)

30 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL The Law of the Gospel "fulfills," refines, surpasses, and leads the Old Law to its perfection. In the Beatitudes, the New Law fulfills the divine promises by elevating and orienting them toward the "kingdom of heaven." It is addressed to those open to accepting this new hope with faith -the poor, the humble, the afflicted, the pure of heart, those persecuted on account of Christ - and so marks out the surprising ways of the Kingdom. (ccc1967)

31 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL The Law of the Gospel fulfills the commandments of the Law. The Lord's Sermon on the Mount, far from abolishing or devaluing the moral prescriptions of the Old Law, releases their hidden potential and has new demands arise from them: It reveals their entire divine and human truth. (ccc1968)

32 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL It does not add new external precepts, but proceeds to reform the heart, the root of human acts, where man chooses between the pure and the impure, where faith, hope, and charity are formed and with them the other virtues. The Gospel thus brings the Law to its fullness –through imitation of the perfection of the heavenly Father, –through forgiveness of enemies and prayer for persecutors, in emulation of the divine generosity. (ccc1968)

33 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL The New Law practices the acts of religion: almsgiving, prayer and fasting, directing them to the "Father who sees in secret," in contrast with the desire to "be seen by men. Its prayer is the Our Father. The Law of the Gospel requires us to make the decisive choice between "the two ways" and to put into practice the words of the Lord. (ccc1969-1970)

34 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL It is summed up in the Golden Rule, "Whatever you wish that men would do to you, do so to them; this is the law and the prophets." The entire Law of the Gospel is contained in the "new commandment" of Jesus, to love one another as he has loved us. (ccc1969-1970)

35 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL To the Lord's Sermon on the Mount it is fitting to add the moral catechesis of the apostolic teachings, such as Rom 12-15, 1 Cor 12-13, Col 3-4, Eph 4-5, etc. This doctrine hands on the Lord's teaching with the authority of the apostles, particularly in the presentation of the virtues that flow from faith in Christ and are animated by charity, the principal gift of the Holy Spirit. "Let charity be genuine.... Love one another with brotherly affection.... Rejoice in your hope, be patient in tribulation, be constant in prayer. Contribute to the needs of the saints, practice hospitality. This catechesis also teaches us to deal with cases of conscience in the light of our relationship to Christ and to the Church. (ccc1971)

36 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL The Practice of the Love of Jesus Christ St. Francis Liguori / 1 Corinthians 13:4-8 Love is kind Correct with firmness not harshness Love does not envy Rejoice at the good others do Love is never boastful Humble of heart Love is not conceited Regard others as better than yourself Love is never selfish Life does not run according to our plan Love does not take offense Accept reasonable correction and is not resentful Love delights in the truth All holiness consists in doing Gods will Love is always ready Understand the limitations and mistakes to excuse, to trustof others Love is always ready Have confidence in the goodness and to hopeprovidence of God Love is ready to endure Temptation should never unnerve us whatever comes

37 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL The New Law is called a law of love –because it makes us act out of the love infused by the Holy Spirit, rather than from fear; a law of grace, –because it confers the strength of grace to act, by means of faith and the sacraments; a law of freedom, –because it sets us free from the ritual and juridical observances of the Old Law, –inclines us to act spontaneously by the prompting of charity –and, finally, lets us pass from the condition of a servant who "does not know what his master is doing" to that of a friend of Christ- For all that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you" - or even to the status of son and heir. (ccc1972)

38 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL Besides its precepts, the New Law also includes the Evangelical counsels. The traditional distinction between God's commandments and the evangelical counsels is drawn in relation to charity, the perfection of Christian life. The precepts are intended to remove whatever is incompatible with charity. The aim of the counsels is to remove whatever might hinder the development of charity, even if it is not contrary to it. (ccc1973)

39 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL The evangelical counsels manifest the living fullness of charity, which is never satisfied with not giving more. They attest its vitality and call forth our spiritual readiness. The perfection of the New Law consists essentially in the precepts of love of God and neighbor. (ccc1974)

40 THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL The counsels point out the more direct ways, the readier means, and are to be practiced in keeping with the vocation of each: [God] does not want each person to keep all the counsels, but only those appropriate to the diversity of persons, times, opportunities, and strengths, as charity requires; for it is charity, as queen of all virtues, all commandments, all counsels, and, in short, of all laws and all Christian actions that gives to all of them their rank, order, time, and value. (ccc1974)

41 MORAL LIFE AND THE MAGISTERIUM OF THE CHURCH The Church, the "pillar and bulwark of the truth," "has received this solemn command of Christ from the apostles to announce the saving truth. "To the Church belongs the right always and everywhere to announce moral principles, including those pertaining to the social order, and to make judgments on any human affairs to the extent that they are required by the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls. (ccc2032)

42 MORAL LIFE AND THE MAGISTERIUM OF THE CHURCH The Magisterium of the Pastors of the Church in moral matters is ordinarily exercised in catechesis and preaching, with the help of the works of theologians and spiritual authors. Thus from generation to generation, under the aegis and vigilance of the pastors, the "deposit" of Christian moral teaching has been handed on, a deposit composed of a characteristic body of rules, commandments, and virtues proceeding from faith in Christ and animated by charity. Alongside the Creed and the Our Father, the basis for this catechesis has traditionally been the Decalogue which sets out the principles of moral life valid for all men. (ccc2033)

43 MORAL LIFE AND THE MAGISTERIUM OF THE CHURCH The Roman Pontiff and the bishops are "authentic teachers, that is, teachers endowed with the authority of Christ, who preach the faith to the people entrusted to them, the faith to be believed and put into practice. The ordinary and universal Magisterium of the Pope and the bishops in communion with him teach the faithful the truth to believe, the charity to practice, the beatitude to hope for. (ccc2034)

44 MORAL LIFE AND THE MAGISTERIUM OF THE CHURCH The supreme degree of participation in the authority of Christ is ensured by the charism of infallibility. This infallibility extends as far as does the deposit of divine Revelation; it also extends to all those elements of doctrine, including morals, without which the saving truths of the faith cannot be preserved, explained, or observed. The authority of the Magisterium extends also to the specific precepts of the natural law, because their observance, demanded by the Creator, is necessary for salvation.

45 MORAL LIFE AND THE MAGISTERIUM OF THE CHURCH In recalling the prescriptions of the natural law, the Magisterium of the Church exercises an essential part of its prophetic office of proclaiming to men what they truly are and reminding them of what they should be before God. (ccc2035-2036)

46 MORAL LIFE AND THE MAGISTERIUM OF THE CHURCH The law of God entrusted to the Church is taught to the faithful as the way of life and truth. The faithful therefore have the right to be instructed in the divine saving precepts that purify judgment and, with grace, heal wounded human reason. They have the duty of observing the constitutions and decrees conveyed by the legitimate authority of the Church. Even if they concern disciplinary matters, these determinations call for docility in charity. (ccc2037)

47 MORAL LIFE AND THE MAGISTERIUM OF THE CHURCH In the work of teaching and applying Christian morality, the Church needs the dedication of pastors, the knowledge of theologians, and the contribution of all Christians and men of good will. Faith and the practice of the Gospel provide each person with an experience of life "in Christ," who enlightens him and makes him able to evaluate the divine and human realities according to the Spirit of God. Thus the Holy Spirit can use the humblest to enlighten the learned and those in the highest positions. (ccc2038)

48 MORAL LIFE AND THE MAGISTERIUM OF THE CHURCH Ministries should be exercised in a spirit of fraternal service and dedication to the Church, in the name of the Lord. At the same time the conscience of each person should avoid confining itself to individualistic considerations in its moral judgments of the person's own acts. As far as possible conscience should take account of the good of all, as expressed in the moral law, natural and revealed, and consequently in the law of the Church and in the authoritative teaching of the Magisterium on moral questions. Personal conscience and reason should not be set in opposition to the moral law or the Magisterium of the Church. (ccc2039)

49 MORAL LIFE AND THE MAGISTERIUM OF THE CHURCH Thus a true filial spirit toward the Church can develop among Christians. It is the normal flowering of the baptismal grace which has begotten us in the womb of the Church and made us members of the Body of Christ. In her motherly care, the Church grants us the mercy of God which prevails over all our sins and is especially at work in the sacrament of reconciliation. With a mother's foresight, she also lavishes on us day after day in her liturgy the nourishment of the Word and Eucharist of the Lord. (ccc2040)

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