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Historical perspective of endocrinology. Beginning of science When do scientific explorations begin? Early science –Linked to medicine rather than intellectual.

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Presentation on theme: "Historical perspective of endocrinology. Beginning of science When do scientific explorations begin? Early science –Linked to medicine rather than intellectual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical perspective of endocrinology

2 Beginning of science When do scientific explorations begin? Early science –Linked to medicine rather than intellectual curiosity –Some behaviors/traditions No scientific understanding Scientific merit

3 History of endocrinology Blood drinking and organ eating –Gaining strength –Gaining advantage over enemy –Treatment for diseases (organotherapy) Impotence Endocrine disorders What is in the blood? –Source of life (Leviticus 17:11)

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5 Egyptians Understanding the role of gonads (ovaries and testis) in sexual reproduction –Fertility and contraception –Removal of ovaries No pregnancy –Removal of testis Eunuchs serving in Pharaohs harem –Use of tampons as a contraceptive Materials from male are responsible for pregnancy

6 Egyptians Methods of pregnancy diagnosis –Morning sickness Detection of diabetes –Excessive thirst Laid the foundation

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9 Greeks Hippocrates (father of medicine) –First known physician Many clinical Observations Considered medicine as science and separated practice from religion

10 Greeks Hippocrates –Theory of inheritance Pangenesis theory (Seeds come from all parts of body and stored in testis) –Theory of four humors Black bile, yellow bile, phlegm (green), and blood Correction of health problems through balancing four humors –Sexing of offspring through testis removal Right-male Left-female –Identification of vascularized glands

11 Greeks Aristotle –History of animals Sows –Loss of ovaries via ovariectomy Contraception Increased growth –Argument against preformation theory Embryo dissection –Methods of contraception Diet (obesity/starvation) Rhythm method Ovariectomy Vaginal and cervical environment manipulation

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13 Romans Organoectomy and organotherapy –Eating brain for epilepsy –Eating testis for impotence

14 Romans Galen –Discovery of thyroid gland Ductless gland similar to salivary gland –Vital spirit Substances from brain being carried into the blood –Pituitary gland Storage of waste products from brain

15 Romans Galen –Peri Spermatos (on seed) Castration –Decreased libido –Changed fat deposition –Changed hair distribution Substance from testis affected physical characteristics

16 Middle ages No significant progress in science –Domination of church Diseases = act of God Surgery = dirty medical practice Chinese –Cure for Goiter Consumption of seeweed and shellfish Dysfunction of thyroid gland –Cause of diabetes

17 Chinese –Testicular organotherapy –Extraction of steroid and metabolites from urine Varying drying temperature to isolate different steroids

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19 Renaissance (rebirth) Explosion of arts and science –Anatomy Da Vinci and Michelangelo –Galileo Galilei –Development of miscroscope and telescope Robert Hooke –Discovery of cells Antoine van Leeuwenhoek –Discovery of sperms

20 Renaissance (rebirth) William Harvey –Circulation of blood –Refuted preformation theory Dissection of uterus immediately after mating –No congealed mass –No female/male parts De Bordeaux (vitalist) –Emanation from each organ is crucial for health No experiments

21 Renaissance (rebirth) Discovery of iodine as a treatment for Goiter –Bernard Courtois

22 First endocrinology experiment

23 Hunter and Berthold –Growth of organs during transplantation Rooster as a model

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25 Removal of testis –Removal of male characteristics (comb) Transplantation of testis –Normal male characteristics Characteristics controlled by substance in blood, not by nerves –Completely disconnected testis

26 Contemporaries Claude Bernard –Exocrine vs. Endocrine gland (liver) Bile from gall bladder Internal secretion (glucose from hepatic glycogen) Thomas Addison –Link between adrenal dysfunction and blood Addisons disease (hypoadrenalism) Brown-Sequard –Organotherapy Extract from testis to rejuvenate older men

27 George Murray –Hypothyroid (myxoedematous) patients can be treated successfully with thyroid extract Von Merring and Minkowski –Relationship between diabetes and pancreas dysfunction Removal of pancreas resulted in constant urination Urine from dogs attracted houseflies when their pancreas were removed

28 Hale White –Feeding pancreas/injection of pancreas extract to treat diabetes Did not work (allergic reaction/too little insulin being stored in pancreas) Pierre Marie –Pituitary gland tumor as a cause of acromegaly Excessive growth hormone from tumor resulted in excessive growth Feeding of dried pituitary gland –No effects on growth

29 Oliver and Schafer –Relationship between adrenal gland and blood pressure Extract from adrenal medulla and pituitary gland caused increase in blood bressure Extract from thyroid gland caused fall in blood pressure –On Internal Secretion (1895)

30 Discovery of the first hormone Starling and Bayliss –Interaction between duodenum loop and pancreas Passing of foodstuff (chyme, highly acidic) through duodenal loop stimulated release of enzyme by pancreas Initial thought – nervous system (vagus nerve) Denervated duodenum stimulated release of pancreatic enzymes when stimulated with acid –Chemical reflex rather than nerve reflex –Reaction through blood Discovery of secretin

31 What is in the name? Hormone –Greek I excite or I arouse –Transported by blood from one organ, which secretes the substance, to the organ where the effect is exerted


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