Presentation on theme: "Law and the New Institutional Economics: Linking Insights and Research Gary D. Libecap University of California, Santa Barbara National Bureau of Economic."— Presentation transcript:
Law and the New Institutional Economics: Linking Insights and Research Gary D. Libecap University of California, Santa Barbara National Bureau of Economic Research Hoover Institution, Stanford Mapping the Frontiers of New Institutional Economics June 11, 2008, University of Colorado School of Law
The New Institutional Economics Focuses on the interaction between formal and informal institutions, including the law, and economic behavior. Institutions to reduce uncertainty, sources of information, reduce the transaction costs of exchange. Coordinate collective action. Promote trade, production, investment. Used for redistribution. Efforts to mold institutions.
The Challenge: Operationalizing the NIE Institutions are inherently difficult to measure. Clarity in definitions and measurement. Clear methodology and hypotheses. Data (quantitative and qualitative) for testing. Generalizations from the specific to the general.
Water Law, Transaction Costs, and Water Markets California case study. Interaction between water law and observed water exchanges, 1987-2005. Problem: Need to re-allocate water from historical uses in agriculture to urban and environmental uses. Large differences in relative values. Water is not land. Interdependencies, bounding, and measurement issues. Regulatory role. Resistance to markets. Precision in which water rights are defined and the nature of the regulatory review process may affect water exchanges.
Water Institutions and Markets Courts, legislation, administrative rulings (State Water Resources Control Board): water rights and transfers. Beneficial use, conservation, fallowing Standing in regulation Parties involvedrights owners, irrigation districts, Bureau of Reclamation, Department of Water Resources, Federal Central Valley Project Endangered species, other third parties. No injury rule.
Water Rights and Markets The Data Patterns of transactions Types of contracts used
NIE Analysis: Data on Legal Change in California Factors that Strengthened Property Rights and Lowered the Transaction Costs of TradingFactor Number* --Does the law make the water right more definite or precise?1 – Does the law specifically define what uses qualify as beneficial uses?2 – Does the law allow for the sale of the land without the water right or the water right without the land?3 – Does the law allow someone to profit from the sale, transfer, or exchange of his water right to another?4 – Does the law allow someone to transfer ownership of his water right?5 – Does the law allow someone to lease his water right to someone else?6 – Does the law allow temporary transfer of water rights on an emergency basis, in times of need?7 – Does the law allow someone to exchange his water right?8 – Does the law add a mechanism for enforcing water rights?9 – Does the law require or encourage water conservation?10 – Does the law encourage water conservation and then allow the owner of the right to sell or transfer some or all of that conserved water? 11 – Does the law provide for water banking mechanisms?12 – Does the law provide an expedited process for short-term transfers or transfer of water rights during times of great need, like droughts? 13 – Does the law allow the use of canals, reservoirs, water support facilities, or streambeds to transport water as part of a water transfer? 14
NIE Analysis: Data on Legal Change in California Factors that Weaken Property Rights and Raise the Transaction Costs of Trading --Does the law authorize water districts, irrigation districts, or other member institutions to regulate use and transfer of water by their members? 15 – Does the law limit water use based on environmental concerns or restrictions?16 – Does the law limit the transfer of water rights to protect the rights of other water users?17 – Does the law restrict the transfer of water rights to protect the environment?18 – Does the law require a third party to be compensated for damage to his water right or when he sells or transfers his water right? 19 – Does the law provide for or require notice of proposed water transfers?20 – Are third parties allowed to protest water transfers, and what is the mechanism for those protests?21
NIE Analysis: Data on Legal Change in California Analysis of each statute, court ruling, and agency opinion in California 1980-2005 Subjective opinion of law students if there was a significant change in the law. 1 coded and then remained, reflecting a permanent change in the institutional environment. 1 coded if any category had another significant change.
NIE Analysis: Data on Legal Change in California
NIE Statistical Analysis Number and Quantity of Transactions = f(Year Variables, Controls: precipitation, population, canals, state GDP, ag share, other ag data-land in farms, harvested, etc- per capita income)
NIE Statistical Analysis Determinants of the Number of Water Transfers Variable Estimate Standard Error Chi-Square p-value Intercept1.51560.433712.210.0005 Lagged Population Change0.18210.038921.940.0001 Precipitation-0.02770.01047.160.0075 Dummy 19890.83720.26939.660.0019 Dummy 19910.84360.182221.440.0001 Dummy 2000-0.29110.13034.990.0254 Dummy 20030.23350.15982.140.1438
NIE Statistical Analysis Determinants of the Volume of Water Transferred Variable Estimate Standard Error Chi-Square p-value Intercept-1.62704.4744-0.360.7225 Lagged Population Change0.88890.46251.920.0787 Precipitation-0.16980.1069-1.590.1381 Dummy 19894.89882.13352.30.0405 Dummy 19913.46962.14921.610.1324 Dummy 2000-1.00591.4880-0.680.5119 Dummy 20033.42141.76021.940.0757
NIE and Legal Analysis Legal institutions can impact the transactions costs of exchange. Interaction between water law and water market transactions. Drought Population pressure Legal change has an observed impact on the number and quantity of water exchanged. Legal structure means that most activity is via one-year leases Example of the application of the NIE to study of the interaction between law and economic behavior.