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Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Hot Air NEXT

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Introduction This interactive lesson will introduce three ways of predicting the behaviour of gases: Boyles Law, Charles Law, and the Ideal Gas Law. NEXTPREVIOUS

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Navigation Throughout this lesson, you will use buttons at the bottom right corner of the page to navigate. Takes you to the next page Takes you to the previous page Takes you to the Main Menu NEXTPREVIOUS

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Main Menu Basic Terminology Boyles Law Charles Law Ideal Gas Law Review of all four lessons Review Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4

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Lesson 1: Basic Terminology This lesson reviews terms used to describe the properties and behavior of gases. NEXT MAIN MENU

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Opening thoughts… Have you ever: Seen a hot air balloon? NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Opening thoughts… Have you ever: Seen a hot air balloon? Had a soda bottle spray all over you? Baked (or eaten) a nice, fluffy cake? These are all examples of gases at work! NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Properties of Gases You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties: NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature Lets review each of these briefly…

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NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties:

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Pressure Pressure is defined as the force the gas exerts on a given area of the container in which it is contained. The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal, Pa. If youve ever inflated a tire, youve probably made a pressure measurement in pounds (force) per square inch (area). NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties:

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Volume Volume is the three-dimensional space inside the container holding the gas. The SI unit for volume is the cubic meter, m 3. A more common and convenient unit is the liter, l. Think of a 2-liter bottle of soda to get an idea of how big a liter is. (OK, how big two of them are…) NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties:

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Amount (moles) Amount of substance is tricky. As weve already learned, the SI unit for amount of substance is the mole, mol. Since we cant count molecules, we can convert measured mass (in kg) to the number of moles, n, using the molecular or formula weight of the gas. By definition, one mole of a substance contains approximately x particles of the substance. You can understand why we use mass and moles! NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties:

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Temperature Temperature is the measurement with which youre probably most familiar (and the most complex to describe completely). For these lessons, we will be using temperature measurements in Kelvin, K. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU The Kelvin scale starts at Absolute 0, which is °C. To convert Celsius to Kelvin, add

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How do they all relate? Some relationships of gases may be easy to predict. Some are more subtle. Now that we understand the factors that affect the behavior of gases, we will study how those factors interact. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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How do they all relate? Some relationships of gases may be easy to predict. Some are more subtle. Now that we understand the factors that affect the behavior of gases, we will study how those factors interact. PREVIOUS MAIN MENU Lets go!

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Lesson 2: Boyles Law This lesson introduces Boyles Law, which describes the relationship between pressure and volume of gases. NEXT MAIN MENU

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Boyles Law This law is named for Charles Boyle, who studied the relationship between pressure, p, and volume, V, in the mid-1600s. Boyle determined that for the same amount of a gas at constant temperature, p * V = constant This defines an inverse relationship: when one goes up, the other comes down. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU pressure volume

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Boyles Law This law is named for Charles Boyle, who studied the relationship between pressure, p, and volume, V, in the mid-1600s. He determined that for the same amount of a gas at constant temperature, p * V = constant This defines an inverse relationship: when one goes up, the other comes down. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU pressure volume

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What does Boyles Law mean? p * V = constant Suppose you have a cylinder with a piston in the top so you can change the volume. The cylinder has a gauge to measure pressure, is contained so the amount of gas is constant, and can be maintained at a constant temperature. A decrease in volume will result in increased pressure. Hard to picture? Lets fix that! NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Boyles Law at Work… Doubling the pressure reduces the volume by half. Conversely, when the volume doubles, the pressure decreases by half. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Application of Boyles Law Boyles Law can be used to predict the interaction of pressure and volume. If you know the initial pressure and volume, and have a target value for one of those variables, you can predict what the other will be for the same amount of gas under constant temperature. Lets try it! NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Application of Boyles Law p 1 * V 1 = p 2 * V 2 p 1 = initial pressure V 1 = initial volume p 2 = final pressure V 2 = final volume If you know three of the four, you can calculate the fourth. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Application of Boyles Law p 1 * V 1 = p 2 * V 2 p 1 = 1 KPa V 1 = 4 liters p 2 = 2 KPa V 2 = ? Solving for V 2, the final volume equals 2 liters. So, to increase the pressure of 4 liters of gas from 1 KPa to 2 KPa, the volume must be reduced to 2 liters. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Boyles Law: Summary Pressure * Volume = Constant p 1 * V 1 = p 2 * V 2 With constant temperature and amount of gas, you can use these relationships to predict changes in pressure and volume. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Lesson 2 Complete! This concludes Lesson 2 on Boyles Law! PREVIOUS MAIN MENU Click the Main Menu button below, then select Lesson 3 to learn about how temperature fits in.

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Lesson 3: Charles Law This lesson introduces Charles Law, which describes the relationship between volume and temperature of gases. NEXT MAIN MENU

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Charles Law This law is named for Jacques Charles, who studied the relationship volume, V, and temperature, T, around the turn of the 19 th century. He determined that for the same amount of a gas at constant pressure, V / T = constant This defines a direct relationship: an increase in one results in an increase in the other. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU volume temperature

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What does Charles Law mean? V / T = constant Suppose you have that same cylinder with a piston in the top allowing volume to change, and a heating/cooling element allowing for changing temperature. The force on the piston head is constant to maintain pressure, and the cylinder is contained so the amount of gas is constant. An increase in temperature results in increased volume. Hard to picture? Lets fix it (again)! NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Charles Law at Work… As the temperature increases, the volume increases. Conversely, when the temperature decreases, volume decreases. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Application of Charles Law Charles Law can be used to predict the interaction of temperature and volume. If you know the initial temperature and volume, and have a target value for one of those variables, you can predict what the other will be for the same amount of gas under constant pressure. Lets try it! NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Application of Charles Law V 1 / T 1 = V 2 / T 2 V 1 = initial volume T 1 = initial temperature V 2 = final volume T 2 = final temperature If you know three of the four, you can calculate the fourth. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Application of Charles Law NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU V 1 / T 1 = V 2 / T 2 V 1 = 2.5 liters T 1 = 250 K V 2 = 4.5 liters T 2 = ? Solving for T 2, the final temperature equals 450 K. So, increasing the volume of a gas at constant pressure from 2.5 to 4.5 liters results in a temperature increase of 200 K.

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Charles Law: Summary Volume / Temperature = Constant V 1 / T 1 = V 2 / T 2 With constant pressure and amount of gas, you can use these relationships to predict changes in temperature and volume. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Lesson 3 Complete! This concludes Lesson 3 on Charles Law! PREVIOUS MAIN MENU Click the Main Menu button below, then select Lesson 4 to put all the pieces together with the Ideal Gas Law.

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Lesson 4: Ideal Gas Law This lesson combines all the properties of gases into a single equation. NEXT MAIN MENU

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Ideal Gas Law Combining Boyles and Charles laws allows for developing a single equation: P*V = n*R*T P = pressure V = volume n = number of moles R = universal gas constant (well get to that in a minute…) T = temperature NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Ideal Gas Law P*V = n*R*T This is one of the few equations in chemistry that you should commit to memory! By remembering this single equation, you can predict how any two variables will behave when the others are held constant. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Gas Constant The Ideal Gas Law as presented includes use of the Universal Gas Constant. The value of the constant depends on the units used to define the other variables. For the purposes of this lesson, we will use the equation only to predict gas behavior qualitatively. Specific calculations and units will be part of our classroom work. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Putting p*V=n*R*T to Work After using Boyles and Charles law for predicting gas behavior, use of the Ideal Gas Law should be relatively straightforward. Use NASAs Animated Gas Lab to explore the interaction of these variables on gas behavior.Animated Gas Lab Follow the directions on the page for changing values for the variables. When youre finished, click the Back button on your browser to return to this lesson. Link to site: Animated Gas LabAnimated Gas Lab NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Ideal Gas Law: Summary P*V = n*R*T Learn it! Use it! This single equation can be used to predict how any two variables will behave when the others are held constant. NEXTPREVIOUS MAIN MENU

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Lesson 4 Complete! This concludes Lesson 4 on the Ideal Gas Law! PREVIOUS MAIN MENU Click the Main Menu button below, then select Review to try some questions based on these lessons.

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Review This review contains multiple choice questions on the material covered by Lessons 1 – 4. Select an answer by clicking the corresponding letter. If you choose an incorrect answer, you will be given feedback and a chance to try again. If you want to return to a lesson to review the material, click on the Main Menu button, then select the lesson. When youre ready to complete the review again, go back to the Main Menu and click the Review button. NEXT MAIN MENU

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Question 1 Based on Boyles Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a.a.Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b.b.Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c.c.Not related MAIN MENU

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Question 1 is Correct! Based on Boyles Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a.Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. Decreasing volume increases pressure. Increasing volume decreases pressure. pressure volume NEXT MAIN MENU

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Try Question 1 again… Based on Boyles Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a.Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b.Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c.Not related You selected b. While pressure and volume are related, it is not a direct proportion. Try again! TRY AGAIN MAIN MENU

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Try Question 1 again… Based on Boyles Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a.Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b.Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c.Not related You selected c. Pressure and volume are related. Is the relationship inverse or direct? TRY AGAIN MAIN MENU

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Question 2 Based on Charles Law (V / T = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and pressure (p) are held constant, volume and temperature are: a.a.Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b.b.Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c.c.Not related MAIN MENU

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Try Question 2 again… Based on Charles Law (V / T = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and pressure (p) are held constant, volume and temperature are: a.Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b.Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c.Not related You selected a. While volume and temperature are related, it is not an inverse proportion. Try again! TRY AGAIN MAIN MENU

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Question 2 is Correct! Based on Charles Law (V / T = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and pressure (p) are held constant, volume and temperature are: b.Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. Increasing temperature increases volume. Decreasing temperature decreases volume. NEXT MAIN MENU volume temperature

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Try Question 2 again… Based on Boyles Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a.Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b.Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c.Not related You selected c. Pressure and volume are related. Is the relationship inverse or direct? TRY AGAIN MAIN MENU

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Question 3 Lets put the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T) to some practical use. To inflate a tire of fixed volume, what is the most effective way to increase the pressure in the tire? a.a.Increase the force pressing on the outside of the tire. b.b.Increase the temperature of the gas (air) in the tire. c.c.Increase the amount (number of moles) of gas in the tire. MAIN MENU

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Try Question 3 again… Lets put the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T) to some practical use. To inflate a tire of fixed volume, what is the most effective way to increase the pressure in the tire? a.Increase the force pressing on the outside of the tire. b.Increase the temperature of the gas (air) in the tire. c.Increase the amount (number of moles) of gas in the tire. MAIN MENU TRY AGAIN While increasing the load in the car might increase the force on the tires, it would prove to be a difficult way to adjust tire pressure. Try again!

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Try Question 3 again… Lets put the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T) to some practical use. To inflate a tire of fixed volume, what is the most effective way to increase the pressure in the tire? a.Increase the force pressing on the outside of the tire. b.Increase the temperature of the gas (air) in the tire. c.Increase the amount (number of moles) of gas in the tire. MAIN MENU TRY AGAIN Increasing the temperature of the air in the tire would definitely increase pressure. That is why manufacturers recommend checking air pressures when the tires are cold (before driving). But how would you increase temperature without damaging the tire? Is there a more practical solution?

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Question 3 is Correct! Lets put the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T) to some practical use. To inflate a tire of fixed volume, what is the most effective way to increase the pressure in the tire? a.Increase the force pressing on the outside of the tire. b.Increase the temperature of the gas (air) in the tire. c.Increase the amount (number of moles) of gas in the tire. MAIN MENU When you inflate a tire with a pump, you are adding air, or increasing the amount of air in the tire. This will often result in a slight increase in temperature because a tire is not a controlled environment. Such deviations and quirks will be discussed in class! NEXT

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Mission complete! You have completed the lessons and review. Congratulations! You should now have a better understanding of the properties of gases, how they interrelate, and how to use them to predict gas behavior. Please click on the button below to reset the lesson for the next student. Thanks! Return to Title Slide

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