Presentation on theme: "Dr. David A. Shirk Trans-Border Institute University of San Diego Findings & Policy Implications Title Slide."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. David A. Shirk Trans-Border Institute University of San Diego Findings & Policy Implications Title Slide
Brief Overview: Project Background Un-Rule of Law in Mexico New Justice Sector Reforms
Justice in Mexico Project Multi-year, interdisciplinary collaborative research initiative 28 contributing experts on Mexican criminal justice www.justiceinmexico.org Sponsored by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and the Tinker Foundation.
Central Theme: Rule of Law Order Accountability Access to justice The rule of law is seriously compromised in Mexico by systemic problems in the administration of justice.
1.Crime and Criminality 2.Police and Policing 3.Legal Institutions & Actors 4.Crime and Society 5.Best Practices & Policy Recommendations Key Topics:
Mexican Criminal Justice System Crime Prevention Preliminary Inquiry Criminal Proceeding Rehabilitation Public prosecutor Investigative police Preventive police Pre-trial detention Trial Sentencing Prison Alternative sentencing
Elevated Levels of Crime Source: Pablo Piccato Database, Accused Criminals, State-level Jurisdiction, 1926-2005.
Prison Population Source: Elena Azaola and Marcelo Bergman, "The Mexican Prison System" (Table 4.3 Prison Population in Mexico), in Wayne Cornelius and David Shirk, Reforming the Administation of Justice in Mexico, (Southbend: Notre Dame Press, 2007), p. 93.
Comparative Prison Population Source: Elena Azaola and Marcelo Bergman, "The Mexican Prison System" (Table 4.5 "Latin American Prison Populations, 1992, 1996, 1999"), in Wayne Cornelius and David Shirk, Reforming the Administation of Justice in Mexico, (Southbend: Notre Dame Press, 2007), p. 100.
A Profile of Mexican Criminals 447 prisons (5 federal; 330 state; 103 municipal) 177,500+ inmates (175 prisoners per 100,000 pop.) 96% male prisoners 40% in pre-trial stage Increasing # drug-related sentences Official Estimates of Percent Prison Over- population in Mexico, 1998-2005 Sources: Source: Azaola and Bergman, The Mexican Prison System; Para 1998: SG. Dirección General de Prevención y Readaptación Social. Para 2001 a 2005: SSP. Órgano Administrativo Desconcentrado. Prevención y Readaptación Social.
Comparative Prison Overpopulation Source: Elena Azaola and Marcelo Bergman, "The Mexican Prison System" (Table 4.6 "Latin American Prisons: Overpopulation, Inmates Awaiting Sentencing, and Cost Per Inmate"), in Wayne Cornelius and David Shirk, Reforming the Administation of Justice in Mexico, (Southbend: Notre Dame Press, 2007), p. 101.
Lifecycle of a Crime in Mexico Crimes committedCifra negra Crimes reported25 of 100 Investigations completed 4.6 of 25 Crimes prosecuted 1.6 of 4.6 Crimes brought to trial 1.2 of 1.6 Crimes sentenced 1.1 of 1.2 Source: Guillermo Zepeda Lecuona, Criminal Investigation and Subversion of Justice System Principles, in Reforming the Administration of Justice in Mexico, forthcoming 2006. Numbers rounded to nearest tenth.
Police Profile 3,000 different forces (federal, state, local) Estimated 400,000 police in Mexico (75% preventive) About 4 police per 1000 persons
Police per Person http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_pol_percap-crime-police-per-capita
Comparing Police Corruption Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer 2003
Locating Corruption in the System Source: Elena Azaola and Marcelo Bergman, "The Mexican Prison System" in Wayne Cornelius and David Shirk, Reforming the Administation of Justice in Mexico, (Southbend: Notre Dame Press, 2007), p. 109, 110.
Inquisitorial Criminal Procedure Investigation by Ministerio público Pretrial detention Written trial proceedings Lengthy process Large case backlogs Lack of transparency
Legal Profession Proliferation of law programs No licensing exam No mandatory bar membership New code of ethics Estimated 40,000 lawyers Mexicos Supreme Court and major national bar associations are beginning to consider mandatory bar membershi.
Turning to the Barracks Militarization of police agencies and counter-drug efforts Increased military budget
Military Deployments Estimated 25,000 troops deployed to special counter- drug operations in 2006-07 Operation Tijuana Operation Michoacán
Drug Violence Map 2006 2006
Drug Violence Map 2007 2007
Percentage of Citizens for Whom Insecurity Is the Most Important Problem Heightened Citizen Concerns Source: Reforma Newspaper, Mexico City, National phone survey.
Demanding Justice In July 2004, 250,000 DF residents marched to demand access to justice. Since the mid-1990s, groups have protested violence against women in Ciudad Júarez. Mexico City and Ciudad Júarez protests
Undesirable Public Responses Severely negative perceptions of police Public resignation to acts of corruption Occasional public vigilantism (especially in rural Mexico) In late 2004, Mexico City residents beat, killed, and set fire to federal police agents suspected of a kidnapping plot. The event was televised while local police stood by.
Best Practices: Looking to States Transparency laws Oral trials Alternative sentences Mediation Bureaucratic oversight
Calderóns Rule of Law Agenda 1.Improved criminal analysis 2.Reducing common crime 3.Police reform 4.Combating organized crime 5.Judicial sector reform 6.Transparency & accountability 7.Stronger victim protections
Current Justice Reform Public oral trials Pre-trial release Due process Discovery Plea bargaining Wire-tapping & searches In December 2007, the Chamber of Deputies passed a proposal for a comprehensive overhaul of the Mexican criminal justice system. After minor modifications, the bill was approved by the Senates judiciary commission in February 2008.
Thank You! David Shirk Alejandra Ríos Robert Buffington Pablo Piccato Elena Azaola & Marcelo Bergman Benjamin Reames Guillermo Zepeda Lecuona Sigrid Arzt Carlos Silva Sara Schatz, Hugo Concha, & Ana Laura Magaloni Elisa Speckman Guerra Hector Fix-Fierro Jeffrey Staton Robert Kossick Pablo Paras Kathleen Staudt Irasema Coronado Rosalva Aida Hernandez Hector Ortiz Elizondo Robert Varenik Mario Arroyo Allison Rowland Marcos Pablo Moloeznik John Bailey Wayne Cornelius