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Exploring Theories and Laws. How are these four concepts related to each other?

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Presentation on theme: "Exploring Theories and Laws. How are these four concepts related to each other?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploring Theories and Laws

2 How are these four concepts related to each other?

3 Common Descriptions Facts are indisputable, proven, known to have happened Hypotheses are educated guesses, hunches, unsubstantiated claims Theories are unsubstantiated ideas, opinions, unproven explanations Laws are proven theories that have withstood repeated testing over time, rules that must be followed, a piece of enacted legislation

4 HYPOTHESIS THEORY L A W (fact) When proven that it always works When supported over time

5 From Where Do These Ideas Originate?

6 Theories in Media

7 Laws in Media

8 Explicit Instruction Answer : A law is something that can be measured or observed to be true. A theory is something that can only be assumed to be true based on the best available knowledge. A theory can eventually, though not necessarily, become a law after time and scrutiny.

9 Student & Teacher Ideas A scientific law is a theory that has been proven over and over by different scientists. A scientific law is definite, and nothing is named a law unless scientists agree that there is no question to its being true. For example, scientists are open to finding new information about the atomic theory, but Newtons law of motion has been tested enough times that scientists are certain it is true. Newtons 1 st Law is proven and through various testing and experiments it has come to be known as a proven law. Theories, however, have not been proved enough to be changed into laws.

10 Jigsaw Activity Read your article. Discuss the authors definitions and examples of scientific fact, theory, law, and hypothesis. How are these similar/different from the commonly used/Helen Curtis definitions of these terms? Be prepared to briefly share with the class.

11 List examples of scientific theories and laws…. Theories Laws

12 Theory of Special Relativity: The speed of light in a vacuum is constant regardless of the motion of the observer or the motion of the light source. Explains the relationship between mass and energy. Newtons Laws of Motion: Describes the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. Atomic Theory: All matter is composed of elements made up of atoms. Explains why matter is conserved in chemical reactions. Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT Describes the relationship between pressure, volume, moles, and temperature of a gas. Electromagnetic Field Theory: A change in an electric field produces a perpendicular magnetic field. A change in a electric field produces a perpendicular electric field. Explains the way in which charges and currents interact. Ohms Law: V = IR Describes the relationship between the voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R). Theory of Plate Tectonics: Earths crust is divided into plates that move. Explains why earthquakes and volcanoes occur in certain zones. Law of Superposition: Describes the general principle that in undeformed layers of rock, the oldest rock will be at the bottom.

13 Theories Laws Theory of Special Relativity: The speed of light in a vacuum is constant regardless of the motion of the observer or the motion of the light source. Explains the relationship between mass and energy. Newtons Laws of Motion: Describes the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. Atomic Theory: All matter is composed of elements made up of atoms. Explains why matter is conserved in chemical reactions. Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT Describes the relationship between pressure, volume, moles, and temperature of a gas. Electromagnetic Field Theory: A change in an electric field produces a perpendicular magnetic field. A change in a electric field produces a perpendicular electric field. Explains the way in which charges and currents interact. Ohms Law: V = IR Describes the relationship between the voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R). Theory of Plate Tectonics: Earths crust is divided into plates that move. Explains why earthquakes and volcanoes occur in certain zones. Law of Superposition: Describes the general principle that in undeformed layers of rock, the oldest rock will be at the bottom.

14 Theories Explain Observations Theory of Plate Tectonics: Earths crust is divided into plates that move. Explains why earthquakes and volcanoes occur in certain zones. Electromagnetic Field Theory: A change in an electric field produces a perpendicular magnetic field. A change in a magnetic field produces a perpendicular electric field. Explains the way in which charges and currents interact. Darwins theory of natural selection: Explains the diversity of life in terms of competition, survival, and inherited traits. Explains the fossil record and how species can change over time. Atomic Theory: Matter is composed of discrete units called atoms, as opposed to the obsolete notion that matter could be divided into any arbitrarily small quantity Explains why matter is conserved in chemical reactions.

15 Theories Explain Laws Einsteins General Theory of Relativity: Explains gravity in terms of space-time curvature and that space-time is curved by matter. Law of universal gravitation: Describes the relationship between mass, distance, and the force of gravity. Chromosome Theory: chromosomes are the basis for all genetic inheritance. Explains the mechanism underlying Mendels laws. The law of independent assortment: Describes the principle that traits are passed on to offspring independent of each other. Kinetic Molecular Theory: Matter consists of tiny particles in constant motion, whose speed is proportional to the absolute temperature. Explains gas laws. Boyles Law: Describes the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas when temperature is held constant.

16 Which Came First? General Theory of Relativity:Law of Universal Gravitation: Chromosome Theory:Law of Independent Assortment: Kinetic Molecular Theory:Boyles Law:

17 Which Came First? General Theory of Relativity: Einstein: 1916 Law of Universal Gravitation: Newton: 1687 Kinetic Molecular Theory: Bernoulli, Clausius: 1738, 1857 Boyles Law: Boyle: 1662 Chromosome Theory: Thomas Hunt: 1910 Law of Independent Assortment: Mendel: 1866

18 Boyles Law New Experiments Physico- Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air, and its Effects... (1662) 7 investigations deal with changes in pressure as a result of changes in volume

19 Boyles Law: 1662

20 Kinetic Molecular Theory (Early Ideas about Molecular Motion) Bernoulli (1738): Hydrodynamica Gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions Impact on a surface causes gas pressure Heat is the kinetic energy of their motion Herapath (1821): Gas particle momentum is a measure of the absolute temperature of the gas Waterston (1843): Gas pressure is a function of the number of molecules per unit volume, molecular mass, and molecular mean-squared velocity Note: both Herapath and Waterston initially failed peer review when attempting to get their ideas published by the Royal Society of London

21 Kinetic Molecular Theory Clausius (1857) Included translational, rotational, and vibrational particle motion The size of a particle is negligibly small relative to its container The duration of impact is infinitesimal as compared to the time between two successive collisions. Others continued working on theory for the next 50 years: Maxwell (1859) Boltzmann (1890s) Einstein (1905) and Smoluchowski (1906) Brownian motion

22 Timeline of Gas Laws and KMT 166217381857 Boyles Law Clausius first complete version of Kinetic Molecular Theory Bernoulli (initial ideas about particle motion)

23 Scientific Fact: In science fact can only mean confirmed to such a degree that it would be perverse to withhold provisional consent. Stephen J. Gould Scientific Hypothesis: 1.A proposed answer to a research question 2.A tentative explanation for an observation or phenomena that can be tested through experimentation.

24 Scientific Theory: A general principle supported by a substantial body of evidence offered to provide an explanation of observed facts and as a basis for future discussion or investigation. Lincoln, Boxshall, and Clark (1990) Scientific Law: A scientific law is a description of a natural relationship or principle, often expressed in mathematical terms.

25 Is there a hierarchy among the four original concepts? Facts Theories Laws Hypotheses

26 Facts Hypotheses Theories Laws Lead scientists to develop Which, when supported by experiments, become And, eventually proven, become More absolute Less absolute

27 Facts Hypotheses Theories Laws Lead scientists to develop Which, when supported by experiments, become And, eventually proven, become More absolute Less absolute

28 HYPOTHESIS THEORYL A W

29 HYPOTHESIS THEORYL A W Concise, descriptive principal Based more on observation Explanatory principal Based more on inference

30 Mystery Tube So How Do We Teach This? Law of Strings When any short string is pulled, the long string shortens by an equivalent amount. String Theory ?

31 Mystery Tube So How Do We Teach This?

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34 Post-Instruction Quotes from Students & Teachers Scientific theories never turn into laws. A scientific law is often mathematical and is used to describe a pattern found in nature. A theory is used to try and explain the why of a pattern or occurrence. A scientific law is a statement describing how something works. A scientific theory attempts to explain something that cannot be directly observed. Laws are usually something that is observable. Theories are based on inference, an effort to explain something.

35 Laws and Theories Based on evidence Can change with new evidence Cannot change into each other Based primarily on observations Holds for specific conditions More descriptive Answers what happens? Relies heavily on inferences Generalizations More explanatory Answers How does it happen? LawsTheories


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