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EDU PSYCHOLOGY OF THE LEARNER

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1 EDU. 102. PSYCHOLOGY OF THE LEARNER
SEMESTER I UNIT 1 : Introduction to Educational Psychology UNIT 2 : Learners Development UNIT 3 : Learners Intelligence and creativity UNIT 4 : Understanding Learner Diversities UNIT 5 : Learners Personality And Adjustment

2 Introduction To Educational Psychology
SEMESTER I MODULE 1 Introduction To Educational Psychology

3 Origin or Evolution of Psychology
Study of Soul Study of Mind Study of Consciousness William James and Wilhelm Wundt ‘Introspection’ Science of Behaviour William mc Dougall in 1905 and J.B Watson in 1913 “First psychology lost its soul, then its mind, then it lost its consciousness, it still has behaviour of a sort” - Woodworth (1948)

4 Definitions of Psychology
“Psychology is a Science which aims to give us better understanding and control of the behaviour of the organism as a whole” - William Mc Dougall (1908) “Psychology is the Science of behaviour” - J. B. Watson (1913)

5 Nature of Psychology Psychology is a positive science which describes what is It is a behavioural science which deals with the behaviour of an organism

6 Approaches to Psychology
Psycho- Analytical Approach (Freud) Behaviourism (John. B. Watzon) Humanistic Approach Constructivist Approach

7 Branches of Psychology
PURE PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY General Psychology Abnormal Psychology Social Psychology Experimental Psychology Physiological Psychology Para Psychology Geo Psychology Developmental Psychology Clinical Psychology Industrial Psychology Legal Psychology Military Psychology Political Psychology Sports Psychology Educational Psychology

8 Educational Psychology
Its an applied psychology Application of psychology in the field of education Application of theories, principles, techniques, researches, approaches of psychology in the field of education

9 Definitions “Educational psychology is that branch of psychology which deals with teaching and learning” - B. F. Skinner (1958) “Educational psychology is the science of education” - Peel (1956)

10 Relationship between Education and Psychology
“A teacher want to teach Latin to John, should want to know both Latin and John” To know the child To know the potentialities and capacities To control the learning environment To shape the learning experience

11 Scope of Educational Psychology
It concern the learner or Pupil Innate abilities or capacities Individual differences Conscious or unconscious behaviour Characteristics of growth and development

12 Scope of Educational Psychology
It concern the Learning experience Techniques Deciding the kind of learning experiences Conscious or unconscious behaviour Characteristics of growth and development

13 Scope of Educational Psychology
It concern Learning process Nature of the Learning process Principles and theories of learning Remembering and forgetting Thinking and reasoning

14 Scope of Educational Psychology
It concern Learning situation or environment Classroom climate Group dynamics Usage of teaching learning aids Guidance and counselling

15 Scope of Educational Psychology
It concern the teacher To know himself Conflict, anger, motivation, adjustment, level of aspiration etc Personality of the teacher

16 Methods of Educational Psychology
Experimental Method Survey Method Case Study Method

17 How to conduct a Case Study
Give due recognition and respect to his individuality Establish a good rapport (connection) Know his personal identity, past history, behaviour, relationship, problems, feelings etc Deep investigation in a comprehensive way Can use a pre prepared format for data collection Collect all relevant data about the person from him and others related to him Find the probable causes of his behaviour Remediation and suggestions

18 Data in Case Study Personal data including problems (emotional, social and education) Birth information Health record Family data Socio-economic status Level of intelligence and creativity (opinion from teachers and parents)

19 Data in Case Study Educational record Areas of interest Adjustment
Behaviour in the classroom Personality traits Educational and vocational ambitions etc Follow up work

20 Merits of Case Study Can get a more detailed picture of the individual
This method uses observation, interviews and tests etc for data collection Solves deep rooted problems of an individual Helps to solve personality, behavioural and adjustment problems It has a wide and comprehensive scope The study is more objective, reliable and valid

21 Demerits of Case Study Need special training and efficiency
Generalisation is not possible Some times the collected data may be fake It has limited scope We can’t ensure the objectivity, reliability & validity Time consuming

22 2 Marks Questions Limitations of experimental method in Education Psychology What is meant by behaviourist approach in Psychology Define educational psychology What you know about Freud’s Psycho- Analytical Approach Write a brief note on Humanistic Approach What is Constructivist Approach What is Survey Method

23 4 Marks Questions Advantages and disadvantages of experimental method
Explain the merits and demerits of case study method First psychology lost its soul, then its mind, then it lost its consciousness, it still has behaviour of a sort”- Comment Briefly explain the nature of psychology Psychology is a positive science. Explain Write a short note on different approaches to psychology Differentiate between Humanistic and Constructivist Approaches to education Prepare short note on Experimental Method, Survey Method and Case Study Method Suppose you identify a case in your class. How to conduct a case study for that case

24 10 Mark Questions Explain the scope of education technology in the teaching learning process

25 Learner’s Development
SEMESTER I MODULE 2 Learner’s Development

26 Growth and Development
Physical Quantitative, we can measure it accurately Simple Structural Change Not continuous, stops when attain maturity Psychological Qualitative & Quantitative measurement is difficult Complex Functional change Continuous, it continues till death

27 Principles of Development
Principle of continuity Rate of growth and development is not uniform Principle of individual differences Development proceeds from general to specific responses Principle of integration Principle of interrelation

28 Principles of Development
Development is predictable Development is spiral and not linear Growth and development is a joint product of both heredity and environment Principle of developmental direction "cephalic-caudal as well as proximodistal"

29 Education Implications of the Principles of Development
We must pay attention to their individual pattern and growth rate while planning the course for their education and development. The correct knowledge of the growth trend of a child helps the parents and teacher not to under or overestimate the future competency or expectancy of their child knowledge about general pattern of development guides us to locate the degree of abnormality in students and to take likewise remedial steps.

30 Education Implications of the Principles of Development
The knowledge of the uniformity of pattern with respect to growth and development makes it possible for the parents and teachers to plan ahead of time for the changes that will take place in their children. Both heredity and environment affects growth and development, so teacher can pay sufficient attention over the environmental conditions in the up bring of the children

31 Approaches to study Development
Cross sectional study Longitudinal study Cross-sectional studies Involve observation of all of a population, or a sample, at one specific point in time. In which different individuals with same characteristics are compared.

32 Approaches to study Development
Longitudinal study It is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time - often many decades. It is used to study developmental trends across the life span. Longitudinal studies track the same people, so make observing changes more accurate.

33 Stages of Development Child Hood ( 3 Years to 12 Years)
Pre- Natal Period (Conception to 280 Days) Infancy (From Birth to 2 Years) Child Hood ( 3 Years to 12 Years) Adolescence ( 13 Years to 19 Years) Adulthood ( 20 Years to 59 Years) Old Age ( 60 Years and Above)

34 Childhood ( 3 Years to 12 Years)
Early Childhood ( 3 to 6) Pre-school Age Later Childhood (6 to 12) School Age

35 Characteristics of childhood and adolescent period
Physical Development Cognitive Development Emotional Development and Social Development

36 Physical Growth and Development

37 Childhood General Trend of Physical Growth and Development
It is very rapid from birth to the age of two or three years. Then, it continues at a diminished rate till the beginning of adolescence. In the case of internal organs, it is also grow and develop rapidly

38 Physical Development External Developments Internal Developments
Height increases Weight increases Change in body proportion Internal Developments Respiratory system Blood circulation Nerve system Digestive system Reproductive system

39 Adolescence Physical Development
Changes in Body Proportions

40 Adolescence Physical Changes
Girl Boy

41 Adolescence Physical Changes
Boys Girls Male sexual characteristics Female sexual characteristics Broader shoulders Broader hips. Broader trunk and Growth of muscles Fast growth especially in breast, hips Growth of hair in armpits and pubic area and appearance of facial hair Growth of hair in armpits, pubic area Larges stomach and Heart grows rapidly Larges stomach and Heart grows rapidly Mature sex organs

42 Factors Affecting Physical Growth and Development
1. The traits and characteristics inherited at the time of conception 2. Single birth or multiple births. 3. The physical as well as mental health of the mother during pregnancy. 5. Normal or abnormal delivery. 6. Conditions and care at the time of delivery. 7. Lookafter of the baby and its mother. 8. Nutrition received by the child after birth.

43 Emotional Growth and Development

44 Important Emotions in Child hood
Fear Worry Anger Temper tantrum Jealousy Affection Happiness Fear Worry Anger Temper tantrum Jealousy Affection Happinesss

45 Peculiarities of Emotions in Childhood
Intensity Briefness Transitoriness Frequency Easily Detectable Emotional Expression through motor responses

46 Childhood Emotional Development
Irrational emotions Peer group relationship starts school atmosphere influences Stability and control during the later childhood

47 Adolescence Emotional Development
Period of intensive storm and stress. Emotional energy is as strong and dangerous Intense, uncontrolled and irrational emotions The sudden functioning of sexual glands and tremendous increase in physical energy makes them restless. Refusing to speak or loudly criticizing Romance Worry about future

48 Social Development

49 Childhood Social Development
Greater degree of social awareness Begins to adjust with others Interest in playmates Peer group influences his behaviour and attitudes He tries to seek independence from his parents and other elders and spends less time with them.

50 Childhood Social Development
Find separation among boys and girls The interests and values of the peer group often clashes with teachers and parents. The child is anxious to win the love and affection of his parents as well as teachers. At the age of 11 or 12, the child enters the peek of "gang age“ The gang life develops many good and bad social qualities in a child.

51 Adolescence Social Development
Dominated by sexual needs and desires. Cooperation reaches its peak. Friendly relationships increases Social contacts get widened He feels strongly for the weak and suffers. Highly critical of social evils and injustice By the end of this stage, the social behaviour of the child becomes almost mature

52 Cognitive / Intellectual
Development

53 Intellectual Development
Adolescence Intellectual Development Reasoning Critical and creative thinking Propositional thinking Abstract thinking Combinatorial thinking Problem solving Hypothetic deductive thinking

54 Developmental Tasks "Developmental task is one which arises at a certain period in the life of the individual, successful accomplishment of which leads to his happiness and success with later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness and difficulty with later tasks.“ Robert Havinghurst , 1972

55 Theories of Development Their Educational Implications
& Their Educational Implications

56 Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget
According to Piaget cognitive development is the output of interaction between the individual and his environment Sensory Motor Stage (Birth to 2 years) Pre-operational Stage ( 2 To 7 Years) Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 years) Formal Operational Stage (11 to adult)

57 Theory of Cognitive Development Bruner
Enactive Representation Iconic Representation Symbolic Representation

58 Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg Level 1 Pre conventional Morality (4 to 10 years) Stage 1 Obedience and punishment Obeying the rules to avoid punishments Stage 2 Individualism and Exchange Obeying rules to satisfy their individual needs Level 2 Conventional Morality (10 to 13 years) Stage 3 Inter personal relation ships Exhibit morality for conformity, the peer acceptance is the base of morality They like good boy – good girl acceptance

59 Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg Stage 4 Maintaining social order When making judgments they consider society as whole He decides rights and wrong according to the social laws Level 3 Post conventional Morality (above 13 years) Stage 5 Social contract and individual rights Rational thinking begins, he accepts social values, opinions and beliefs of other people They worth rules of law and order Stage 6 Universal principles Moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning High level of morality

60 Theory of Psycho- Social Development
Eric Erickson Learning basic trust Vs Basic Mistrust (0 to 2) Learning autonomy Vs Basic Shame (2 to 4) Learning initiative Vs Basic Guilt (4 to 6) Industry Vs Basic Inferiority (6 to 12) Learning Identity Vs Basic Identity Diffusion(13 to 19) Learning Intimacy Vs Isolation (early adulthood) Learning Generativity Vs self Absorption (adulthood) Integrity Vs Despair (Later Adulthood)

61 Recent issues and problems of Adolescence

62 Recent issues and problems of Adolescence
Loneliness and isolation Change in family structure Information overload Sexual abuse Substance abuse Depression and suicide Infatuation Disobedience Identity crisis Impact of media (internet, mobile, cinema, TV etc)

63 Adolescence Problems Strain and Stress Despair and Depression
Intense, uncontrolled and irrational emotions Identity crisis Romance Worry about future Irresponsibility (Neglecting studies for winning social approval Excessive day dreaming

64 2 Marks Questions What are developmental tasks
What do you mean by Cephalo-caudal trend in development What is Infatuation? What is identity crisis? Which is the state of development characterized by this Define Developmental task

65 4 Marks Questions What are the characteristics of secondary school children Explain the stages of development proposed by Kohlberg Explain Approaches to study Development Explain the principles of growth and development Briefly explain Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Distinguish between growth and development. Briefly describe the principles of growth and development In what respect does concrete operational stage differ from formal operational stage Mention any five problems of adolescence and explain the measures adopted for tackling them Explain the stages of Psycho- Social Development as proposed by Eric Erickson

66 10 Marks Questions Distinguish between growth and development. Enumerate the characteristic features of childhood and adolescent stages with examples. Describe the physical, social, and mental characteristics of secondary school students and their educational implications for classroom teaching Discuss the principles of human development. How does a knowledge of this, help in classroom instruction

67 Learner’s Intelligence and creativity
SEMESTER I MODULE 3 Learner’s Intelligence and creativity

68 Learner’s Intelligence

69 Intelligence Ability to adapt to one’s surrounding - Piaget
Aggregate global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment Wechsler

70 Theories of Intelligence
Spearman’s two factor theory Guilford’s theory of structure of intellect model Howard Gardner -Multiple intelligences theory Emotional intelligence

71 Spearman’s two factor theory
Each intellectual activity involves a general factor ‘g’ (is common to all mental operations) and a specific factor ‘s’ (is specific to specific activities) g S1 S2 Intelligence = G + s1+ s2+ s3

72 Guilford’s theory of structure of intellect model
Three basic dimensions or parameters known as Contents (the terms in which we think or the type of information involved) Operation (the act of thinking or way of processing the information) Products (the ideas we come up with, i.e. the output of a thinking). Each of these parameters further subdivided into some specific factors or elements

73

74 Gardner’s Multiple intelligences
1. Verbal / Linguistic Intelligence 2. Logical / Mathematical Intelligence 3. Musical Intelligence 4. Visual / Spatial Intelligence 5. Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence 6. Naturalistic Intelligence 7. Interpersonal Intelligence 8. Intrapersonal Intelligence 9. Existential Intelligence 10. Spiritual Intelligence 11. Moral Intelligence Howard Gardner

75 Emotional intelligence
emotional intelligence was introduced in 1990 by two American University professors Dr. John Mayer and Dr. Peter Salovey Popularizing the concept of emotional intelligence goes to another American psychologist Daniel Goleman through his book Emotional Intelligence: Why it Can Matter More Than I.Q

76 Emotional intelligence
"The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships". Goleman (1995) "The capacity to reason with emotion in four areas: to perceive emotion, to integrate it in thought, to understand it and to manage it.“ John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey (1997)

77 Components of Emotional intelligence
Self –awareness (know emotions of one self and capacities) Self regulation (regulate emotions ) Motivation(reaching goals without emotional problems) Empathy (know emotions of others ) Social skills (ability to deal emotions)

78 Emotional Quotient (EQ)
Relative measure of one’s emotional intelligence It is the sum of the measures of five components It is a scale to measure EI Not accurate like IQ EQ is more importance than IQ

79 Importance of Emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligence is needed than mere intelligence It motivating ourselves to live in groups It is a main quality of a leader A good teacher should want to know the feelings of the students and act accordingly It help the social living conflict less It help to maintain harmony in relationships EQ constitute 80% of success in our life

80 Measurement of Intelligence

81 Mental Age (MA) and Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
This term was initiated by the German psychologist William Stem and put into wide practice by Terman. Mental Age (MA) IQ = x 100 Chronological Age (CA)

82 IQ Level of Intelligence 140 and above Gifted or Genius 120 - 140
Very Superior Superior Normal or Average Border Line and Dull Morons Imbeciles Below 25 Idiots

83 Intelligence Tests Individual tests One individual is tested at a time
Group tests A group of individuals is tested at a time Verbal or language tests Make use of language Non verbal involve activities – performance tests

84 Verbal tests Types Vocabulary tests Memory tests Comprehension tests
Individual is required to use language for giving responses The test content is loaded with verbal materials Less expensive For eg. A man is than his daughter Types Vocabulary tests Memory tests Comprehension tests Information tests Reasoning tests Association tests

85 Non Verbal tests Individual is not required to use language for giving responses The test items are in the form of symbols, diagrams, desigs etc For eg. Figure Analysis Figure Classification Figure Series

86 Learner’s Creativity

87 Creativity Definitions
Creativity implies the production of a ‘totally or partially' novel identity. Stagner and Karwoski, 1973 Creative thinking means that the predictions and/or inferences for the individual are new, original, ingenious, and unusual. The creative thinker is one who explores new areas and makes new observations, new predictions, new inferences. Skinner,1968

88 Nature of creativity Universal Both inherited and acquired
Production of something new Adventurous and open thinking Carries ego involvement Average intelligent may be creative Not related with school achievement

89 Components of Creativity
Sensitivity (ability to sense the environment) Fluency (it is the ability to produce ideas as many as possible) Flexibility (ability to produce variety of ideas) Originality ( ability to produce unusual ideas that others are not thought of ) Elaboration (it is the ability to go in to the details)

90 Stages of creative thinking (Wallas, 1976)
Preparation (sensing and understanding the problem) Incubation (pushing the unsolved problems in to the mind) Illumination (individual solves the problems immediately) Verification or revision (testing the ideas and solutions)

91 How to identify creative individuals
Characteristics High level curiosity Good memory High level of fluency Flexibility Enquiry tendency Fond of reading Imagination capacity Methods Observation Rating by peers Questioning technique Creativity tests

92 Verbal Creativity Tests
Instance (example) type (name all the round things) Unusual uses type (write all different uses of ball pens) Consequences type (think of as many consequences) Product improvement test (think improvement) New relationship test (soap and salt) Creative writing (ask to complete the story)

93 Non-verbal Creativity Tests
Parallel line test (construction of figures from two parallel lines) Figure completion test (incomplete figure want to complete) Picture construction test (construct pictures from round or squares etc)

94 Role of the teacher to Foster Creativity
Give them Freedom to respond Encourage originality and flexibility Removal of hesitation and fear Using the creative resources of the community Proper organization of the curriculum Reform in evaluation system Use of special techniques Brain storming Lateral thinking Synectics

95 Brainstorming Technique for allowing a group to explore ideas without judgment or censure. Children may be asked to sit in a group for solving a problem and attacking it without any inhibition from many angles For eg. Growing unemployment in India

96 Lateral Thinking The term was coined in 1967 by Edward de Bono
Lateral thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach using unconventional thinking techniques normally untapped by our usual ways of thinking. Lateral Thinking training will teach you how to think creatively, turn problems into opportunities, find alternative solutions, & dramatically increase your number of new and practical ideas

97 Synectics The word Synectics derived from the Greek and means "the joining together of different and apparently irrelevant elements.“ Based on analogy ÌtÎßÜïÞJ ÕØñáA{áæ¿ ØÞÎc¢ (bird and a car) Synectics is a problem solving methodology that stimulates thought processes of which the subject may be unaware. This method was developed by George M. Prince and William J.J. Gordon

98 Understanding Learner Diversities
SEMESTER I MODULE 4 Understanding Learner Diversities

99 Meaning of Individual Differences
“No two persons are born exactly alike ; but each differs from the other in natural endowments, one being suited for one occupation and the other for the another” --- Plato

100 Areas of Individual Difference
Intelligence Creativity Interest Attitude Aptitude

101 Attitude Attitude is, in a word, how you express your likes and dislikes towards particular people, things, and occurrences. It is the mental disposition “Attitude is a dispositional state of readiness to respond certain situations, persons, and ideas in a consistent manner, which has been learned and has become one typical mode of response” ---- Freeman

102 Measurement of Attitude
Nature of Attitude Measurement of Attitude It is a mental state of readiness It is an acquired tendency It is more or less permanent Attitudes ranges from strongly positive to strongly negative Attitude Scale Linkert attitude scale Thurston's attitude scale

103 Aptitude It is a special ability distinct from general intellectual ability that help an individual to acquire proficiency in some specific field Aptitude refers to a set of abilities essential for acquiring knowledge and skill in a specific area of performance GATB (General Aptitude Test Battery) DAT (Differential Aptitude Test )

104 Difference Attitude Aptitude
Mental state or readiness towards something It is a learned tendency May be general to specific May to change easily Ability on particular activity It has more innate basis Always specific Once established it is difficult to change

105 How to create Interest among students
It is the motivating force It pushes an individual to act towards specified goals How to create Interest among students Setting proper aims and objectives Use psychological methods for teaching Use audio visual aids Provide proper learning environment

106 Exceptional Children Characteristics
Quite different and distinct from normal or average children Characteristics They deviate significantly from average children They need special care and treatment They cannot be benefited from the normal classroom They need special education to develop their potential

107 Types of Exceptional Children
Gifted Children Slow Learners Learning Disabled

108 Gifted / Talented Children
Having High IQ, above 140 Whose performance is consistently remarkable in some potentially valuable activity Superior in some abilities Can make noteworthy contribution to society

109 Characteristics Problems
High performance High level of curiosity Rich vocabulary High intellectual ability Ask many questions Original ideas Thirst for new knowledge Superiority complex Feeling of isolation Negative attitude towards society Always dissatisfied with the existing situation

110 Educational Provisions for gifted
Acceleration Approach Double promotion Earlier admission Enrichment Approach Separate schools Approach Navodhaya Vidyalayas Njana Prabodhini school, Pune Good Sheperd School , Ooty

111 Slow Learners / Backward
“Slow learners are those children who falls far behind from other children of the same age in educational achievement’” IQ 70 to 85 Below average intelligence Often appear immature Short memory Concentrate only on some aspects For them learning is a burden

112 Characteristics Problems
Low performance Short span of attention Poor mental coordination Intellectual deficiency Lack of motivation Fear of failure High level of anxiety Always feels learning as a burden

113 Educational Provisions for Slow Learner
Avoid frustrations Motivate them to learn Develop self confidence Present simple learning task Revision Peer tutoring Programmed instruction Keep progress record Special classes

114 Learning Disability 10 % of school students have learning disability
Certain kinds of disorders in the basic psychological processes of an individual Inability to understand things

115 Characteristics of Learning Disabled
Difficulty in language related areas Handicap in mathematical skills Exhibit hyperactivity Suffer emotional problems Demonstrate anxiety, moodiness etc Low attention power Low concentration power Low retention and thinking capacity Lack of communication power Problematic and improper pronunciation

116 Types of LD Dyslexia Dysgraphia It is a common problem in students
Reading difficulty, very slow reading, missing of some words, perceive words as images etc He read ØÎÞÉÈ¢ as ØÎÞÇÞÈ¢ Dysgraphia It’s a writing difficulty write ambiguous words The child confused with the shapes of the words Eg. Ø Á , b d, p q The always make spelling mistakes Always missing space between words Types of LD

117 Types of LD Dyscalculia
It is a difficulty related to mathematical operations Unable to add, subtract, multiply and divide Difficult to identify the mathematical symbols Write 69 as 96

118 4. ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyper activity Disorder)
It is a behavioral problem They have difficult to maintain attention in any activity They are active and restless in most of the time They prefer activity oriented learning situation they have normal intelligence but difficult to maintain attention Types of LD

119 Educational Provisions for LD
Provision for specialized schools or classes Provision for special remedial and educational programmes Structuring and improving the existing environmental set up Care by parents and teachers Restructure school experience considering needs and interests Specialised training

120 Learner’s Personality and Adjustment
SEMESTER I MODULE 5 Learner’s Personality and Adjustment

121 Personality ÕcµñßÄb¢ Social attractiveness
A good person can impress others with his/her personality Personality is the sum total of ones qualities & character It is the sum total of positive and negative attributes of a person

122 Personality Latin word “persona” Means Mask or false face
Personality includes everything about the person

123 Definition of Personality
“Personality is a dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustment with the environment” Allport (1948) “Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation”. Cattel (1970)

124 Characteristics of Personality
Personality is something unique and specific It includes everything about a person Personality is not static Personality is the product of heredity and environment Learning and experience contributes the development of one’s personality

125 Approaches Psycho Analytic Approach Sigmund Freud Trait Approach
G.B. Allport R.B. Cattel Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow

126 Psycho Analytic Approach
Psycho Analytical Theory Has Three Major Parts Theory of Personality Dynamics (levels of consciousness) Theory of Personality Structure Theory of Psycho Sexual Development Sigmund Freud

127 Levels of Consciousness
Conscious Mind Active mind Your present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, feelings, Preconscious Mind Available memory We can easily be made conscious Retrievable Unconscious Mind Not directly aware Repressed motives, memories and emotions

128 The Structure of Personality
Id Ego Superego

129 The Structure of Personality
The Id The Ego The super Ego Instincts & Biological Situated in unconscious mind Original System of Personality Immoral Work on pleasure principles Reservoir of Psychic Energy Human quality Situated in conscious mind Work on Reality Principle Executive of the Personality Organized Portion of Id Psychological Moral Arm of Personality Situated in pre- conscious mind Learning of Moral Values Sociological

130 Theory of psycho-sexual development
According to Freud sex is the life urge or fundamental motive in life All physical pleasure is sexual in nature Sexuality is not the only characteristic of the adult Children from the very beginning have also sexual desires it is called Infantile Sexuality A child passes through five stages of psycho sexual stages

131 Stages of Psycho Sexual Development
Oral stage (birth to 2 years) ÕÆÈ ¸G¢ Mouth is the erogenous zone. Infant achieves gratification by feeding, sucking, biting etc.. Anal stage (2 to 3 years) Sexual pleasure is focused on the anal zone Child achieves gratification through retention & expulsion of faeces

132 3. Phallic stage (4 to 6 years) èÜ¢·ßµÞÕÏÕ ¸G¢
Pleasure is focused on the genital region by playing with them Child notes the biological differences between sex organs It give raise to many complexes Oedipus complex – sexual attraction of Boy to mother Electra complex - sexual attraction of Girl to father Castration complex – boy fear of being deprived of their sex organs because elders fear them to cut off their sex organs when playing with them

133 Latency stage (7 to 12 years) ÈßÜàÈ ¸G¢
Prefer the company of their own sex Child neglect or hate the members of the opposite sex Sexual interests and pleasure is derived from external world Genital stage (13 and above) èÜ¢·ßµ ¸G¢ Attraction towards the opposite sex Seek pleasure by the self stimulation of the sex organs They love themselves and opposite sex Pleasure is derived from mature sexual relations with a partner of opposite sex.

134 Life Instinct Death Instinct
desire to die or destruction Creates conflicts and anxiety Manifested through aggression, cruelty and suicide Impulse to live Aim the survival of the species Manifested through love and sex LIBIDO is the life maintaining energy which seek pleasure through sexual gratification If the flow blocked, may cause neurotic problems Life instincts and death instincts decides the quality and satisfaction of a persons life

135 Trait Theories Basic unit of personality Relatively permanent and consistent general behavioral patterns that an individual exhibits in most of the situations “Personality traits are real entities that physically located somewhere in the nervous system.” Relatively consistent ways of thinking, acting and feeling G.B. Allport R.B. Cattel

136 Allport's theory of Personality
Common Traits Common with most others in our own culture. Individual traits Unique traits According to Allport, Individual traits have three elements Cardinal Traits Central Traits Secondary Traits

137 Individual Traits Cardinal traits: Central traits: Secondary traits:
Dominates an individual’s entire personality Just one or two in an individual Appears most of the time Gandhi – Peace Central traits: Ordinarily used to describe a person Less pervasive Secondary traits: Specific narrow traits, weak effect on behavior, relatively small range of situations Less prominent, less generalized, eg. Food habits

138 Cattell’s Theory of Personality
Personality of an individual is composed of different combinations of four types of traits He found four types of traits Common Traits Trait found widely in general population Refer to characteristic shared by many people. Eg. Aggression, honesty and cooperation etc

139 Cattell’s Theory of Personality
Unique Traits Those specific or unique to a person. Eg. Temperamental traits and emotional reactions Surface Traits Observable qualities of a personality, eg. Kindness, curiosity, dependability, tactfulness etc Easily recognized by overt manifestation of behavior Source Traits Underlying structures or sources that determine the behavior Predictors of human behaviour Eg. Intelligence, dominance etc

140 Maslow’s Self-actualization Theory
According to Maslow the goal of personality development is the self actualisation Self Actualisation It is the realisation of one’s basic potential to the maximum extent and use it effectively as much as possible A person achieves this through many steps It is known as the Hierarchy of Needs

141 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

142 Carl Rogers’ Self Theory
Organism Individuals entire time of reference Represents the totality of ones experience Experience includes both conscious and unconscious Self The aware part of experience It is the understanding of ones concept of ‘I’ Know self affects one’s growth and development and adjustment to his environment The concept of self may differ from person to person

143 Carl Rogers’ Self Theory
Personality It is the product of the interaction between the organism and the self of the individual Congruence and incongruence with self determines the personality He divided the self in to three Real Self Self Concept Ideal Self There should be some congruence between these three

144 The Problem of incongruence
Developing false self image or the incongruence may lead to abnormality in one’s behaviour The teacher want to develop the congruence between these three selves

145 Characteristics of a Mature Personality
A goal towards life Good self esteem Effective communication Taking up challenges There is no fear to failure Warm relatedness to others Realistic perception of reality Unifying philosophy of life Emotional intelligence Desire to live Willingness to change Continuous learning Positive attitude Self acceptance Self objectification Self confidence Enthusiasm Empathy

146 Measurement of Personality
Objective Techniques Observation Rating Scale Subjective Techniques Interview Situational tests Sociometric methods Psychodrama Self Report Inventories Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory Projective Techniques Rorschach Inkblot Test Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Word Association Test Sentence Completion Test

147 Projective Techniques ÕßçfÉÃ ÄdLBZ
Used in personality assessment Used to collect data which cannot be collected directly from the individual It helps to project one’s inner feeling in an unconscious manner

148 Examples Projective Techniques
Rorschach‘s Ink Blot Test Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Children’s Apperception Test (CAT) Word Association Test (WAT) Sentence Completion Test

149 Personality Inventories
Printed form consist of a set of statements or questions applying to human behaviour Close ended answers so objective Example Cattel’s 16 PF inventory MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) Eysenk’s personality Questionnaire The California Psychological inventory MMPI (Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory)

150 Adjustment and Maladjustment ØÎÞçÏ޼Ȣ ¥ÉØÎÞçÏ޼Ȣ
“Adjustment is the process by which living organisms maintains a balance between its need and circumstances that influence the satisfaction of his life” --- L.S. Shaffer Adjustment problems leads to Maladjustment

151 Causes of Maladjustment
Physical causes Defects Diseases Psychological causes Psychosis Neurosis Emotional problems Environmental causes School / teacher Home / parents Social causes Lack of soft skills Lack of socialisation Bad friendship

152 Adjustment Mechanisms ØÎÞçÏÞ¼È ÄdLBZ
Maladjustment is the degree of disharmony between individual and environment If it occurs the person tries to adjust the environment by using three mechanisms Modifying the internal impulses Try to alter the environmental demands to resolve the maladjustment Escape through unconscious resources of the mental mechanisms (Defense Mechanisms)

153 Defence Mechanism dÉÄßçøÞÇ ÄdLBZ
“Defense mechanisms are certain pattern of behaviour that are employed for protection against threat of anxiety” --- Arkoff It is the temporary solution to protect from a psychological problem

154 Defence Mechanisms Repression (ÆÎÈ¢) Regression (ÉÖíºÞÆí·ÎÈ¢)
Projection (dÉçfÉâ) Displacement Rationalization (Ïáµñàµøâ) Denial Regression (ÉÖíºÞÆí·ÎÈ¢) Sublimation

155 Mental Health ÎÞÈØßµÞçøÞ·c¢
“Mental health is the full and harmonious functioning of the wholesome personality” J.A Hadfield (1953) “It is the ability which help to seek adjustment in the difficult situations of our life” Cutts and Maslay (1941)

156 Characteristics of Mentally Healthy Person
Knows his strength and weaknesses Sense of happiness and well-being Capable to deal with stresses of life The feeling of self realization Ability to strike balance in different aspects of life Intellectual development Shows concerns for other Social adjustability He lives in the world of reality

157 Symptoms of Poor Mental Health
Emotional unstable and upset Suspicious and insecure Feeling of guilt Less self confidence Frustration, conflicts, strain and stress Less tolerance and short tempered Lack of decision making capacity Unrealistic attitudes towards life Suffers mental disturbances Always dissatisfied Live in his own world of imagination and fantasy

158 Importance of Mental Health of Teachers and Students
Help in seeking goals of life Help to lead a life with satisfaction Help in preventing mental illness Help in actualising one's potentialities Help in proper emotional development Help in developing desirable personalities

159 Causes of Mental Illhealth of Teachers and Students
Stress and strain Lack of social skills Lack of support from parents and teachers Lack of healthy diet Lack of health exercises

160 Role of the teacher to Improve Mental Health
Give students a stress free learning environment Ensure emotional security Treat them psychologically Encourage Prayer Mediation Aware them about Healthy fats Give opportunity to Indulge in mind games Give chance to Spend more time with nature Give options for Exercise students’ body well Focus student on learning new things

161 Mental Hygiene ÎÞÈØßµ ÖáºßÄb¢
“Mental hygiene is a science which deals with human welfare that pervades all fields of human relationship” --- Crow and Crow (1951) “Mental hygiene may be defined as the prevention of mental illness, preservation of mental health and the cure of mental illness” --- Crow and Crow (1969)

162 Guidance (ÎÞVPÆVÖÈ¢) “Guidance is the help given by one to another in making choices and adjustments and in solving problems” -- Jones (1961) “Guidance is a process of helping every individual, through his own efforts, to discover and develop his potentialities for his personal happiness and social usefulness” -- Strang “ Guidance is a process of helping young person to learn to adjust self, to others and to circumstances” -- Skinner

163 Guidance Need of Guidance Types of Guidance
It is a personal help given by other persons It assist to solve the problems Attach the problem, not the individual Need of Guidance Educational need Vocational need Personal need Types of Guidance Educational Guidance Vocational Guidance Personal Guidance

164 Counselling (dÉçÌÞÇÈ¢)
“It is a series of direct contacts with the individuals which aims to offer him assistance in changing his attitudes and behaviour ” Rogers (1942) “it is a self adjective process which helps the client become more self directive and self responsible” Shostorm and Brammer (1952)

165 Nature of Counseling It involves two person, the counselee and the counselor The two persons have very cordial and satisfying relationship It discusses freely what upset the counselee It tries to develop social skills, courage and self confidence etc It also tries to modify the interest, attitude and abilities of the child

166 Types of Counselling Directive Counselling Counsellor centered
Non Directive Counselling Counsellee centered Eclectic Counselling

167 Guidance Counselling May be given in groups
Face to face relation is not essential The task of the guidance worker is not as serious as that of a counselor Cordial and satisfying relationship is not needed Given individually not in groups Face to face direct relation is essential The task of the counselor is more serious than that of a guidance worker Cordial and satisfying relationship is needed Aims to solve the problem

168 Guidance and Counselling Services in Schools
Inventory Service Information Service Guidance Committee Career Corner Career Talks Career Conferences Placement Services Testing Programmes for finding problems Films or documentary and Exhibitions

169 2 Marks Questions Write any two functions of Ego
Write any two characteristics of mature personality Briefly explain mature personality Briefly explain the concept ideal self of Rogers What is meant by personality traits? Give an examples State Allport’s definition of personality Define non directive counselling What are the important principles of group guidance Write a short note on clinical guidance Distinguish between directive and non- directive counselling What do you mean by group guidance

170 4 Marks Questions Describe Allports Trait approach to personality
Explain the views of Cattell regarding the trait approach in personality In Freudian terminology, predominance of Id, Ego and Super ego make one slave to impulsive behaviour. Discuss How would you develop mental health among high school students Define mental hygiene. What are the goals of mental hygiene Explain Humanistic approach of Roger about personality Adjustment and maladjustment of the personality development

171 4 Marks Questions How will you organize a guidance cell in your school? Briefly explain Explain the term counselling. Differentiate between directive and non-directive conselling What ate the deferent types of guidance? Explain the objectives of organizing guidance cell in a school. Explain Guidance and Counselling. Bring out the need for guidance and counselling in secondary schools

172 10 Marks Questions Discuss the different approaches to personality.
What is personality? Discuss the psycho- analytic approach of personality proposed by Freud

173 Thank you May God bless you Jouhar Munavvir. T Mob: 09847154767
Assistant Professor Farook Training College, Farook College, Calicut Mob:


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