Origins of the Reformation Began in Germany because it lacked a strong central government Germany formed core of Holy Roman Empire ( Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation), but empire included 365 independent states Weak emperor could not control independent ideas about religion within the German states
Martin Luther German monk, started Reformation Believed in Justification By Faith: a person could be made just, or good, simply by faith in God's mercy and love
Selling Indulgences Pope Leo X sold church positions and indulgences Indulgences - certificates issued by the Church that were said to reduce or even cancel punishment for a person's sin
People purchased indulgences, believing it insured them a spot in heaven John Tetzel, Church's agent for selling indulgences in N. Germany, promised peasants that indulgences would relieve them of guilt for future sins
"Once you hear the money's ring, the soul from purgatory is free to spring."Could also buy indulgences for salvation of their dead relatives - "Once you hear the money's ring, the soul from purgatory is free to spring." Purgatory - place in the afterlife where people are made fit for heaven
Luthers Protest October 31, 1517: nailed on door of Wittenberg Church 95 Theses Criticized sale of indulgences Printed copies of Theses spread Luther published essay advocating justification by faith
1521: Pope Excommunicates Luther Diet of Worms (Germany) - tried to get Luther to take back criticisms Luther refuses; condemned as a heretic Went into hiding; translated Bible into German Backlash!
Lutheranism vs. Catholicism Emphasized salvation by faith alone Bible only source of religious truth Church = community of believers All occupations were vocations in which people could serve God Ministers - only administer baptism & communion Stressed faith and good works in salvation Church teachings important spiritual guide Church = hierarchy Priesthood only calling in which people could serve God Priests - administer 7 sacraments
Huldrych Zwingli Swiss priest wanted to break completely with Catholic tradition 1525 established a THEOCRACY (church-run state) in Zurich 1531 died in battle between Catholics & Protestants
John Calvin John Calvin: argued God determines fate of every person - PREDESTINATION Those predestined (chosen beforehand) were called the elect Calvin turned Geneva into model religious community (theocracy) the City of God
Consistory (Church council) required citizens to attend services; inspected homes - earned title "City of God."
John Knox Leader of the Reformation in Scotland Founds Presbyterianism based on Calvins teachings Presbytery - group of decision makers of the church Priesthood of all believers
Anabaptists Only baptized adult members Denied authority of local governments to direct their lives - said Christ was their only authority (separation of church and state) 1534 - radical Anabaptists seized power in German city of M ü nster (burned books, took property) Lutherans & Catholics united to crush them
Sketch of the 1535 execution of leaders of the sect in Münster, and photo of the church where their corpses were displayed. The cages still remain.
Henry VIII Henry wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon for not producing a male heir to the throne Catholic Church forbade divorce - refused to dissolve Henrys marriage
Henry got mad, withdrew England from Catholic Church and created a new church (Act of Supremacy) Parliament created Church of England (Anglican Church) with king as its head and got his Divorce Main critic was Thomas More –Who remained catholic, was imprisoned and later executed for treason.
THE SIX WIVES OF HENRY VIII Catherine of Aragon Divorced33 Divorced Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn m. 1533 - 1536 Executed Jane Seymour Jane Seymour m. 1536 - 1537 Died Anne of Cleves Anne of Cleves m. 1540 Jan. - July Divorced Kathryn Howard Kathryn Howard m. 1540 - 1542 Executed Katherine Parr Katherine Parr m. 1543 - 1547 Widowed
Henrys Girls Catherine of Aragon gave him a daughter Mary. Divorced, the pope would not allow a divorce because Catherines cousin was Holy Roman Emperor Charles V who protected the Pope and the Vatican. Anne Boleyn gave birth to a daughter Elizabeth, she fell out of his Henrys favor was tried for treason and beheaded.
Jane Seymour came next, she have Henry the son he sought, Edward... But she died two weeks after giving birth. Henry married three more times but did not have any more children. After his death each of his children ruled England.
Edward VI Became King in 1547, when he was 9 years old so he was guided by adult advisors who were strict protestants. Edward ruled for 6 years until his death
Mary Mary came to power in 1553 and being a Catholic had the English church returned to the rule of the Pope, angering many protestants and putting many to death, acquiring the nickname… Bloody Mary.
Elizabeth Elizabeth came to power in 1553, and saw the problems her brother and sister had in their rule. She brought Protestantism back to England and established the Anglican Church which combined both Protestant and Catholic values, Anglican Priests could marry and services were in English not Latin.