Presentation on theme: "Genetic Engineering: Recombinant DNA Technology The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change."— Presentation transcript:
Genetic Engineering: Recombinant DNA Technology The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change. --- started in1970s
Basic steps in genetic engineering 1.Isolate the gene 2.Insert it in a host using a vector 3.Produce as many copies of the host as possible 4.Separate and purify the product of the gene
The process of genetic engineering
Recombinant DNA Technology in the Synthesis of Human Insulin
DIABETES and the role of Insulin Diabetes mellitus –Greek for siphon and Latin for Honey –Characterized by excretion of large amounts of sugar in the urine –Results from the bodys inability to make sufficient insulin, hormone involved in the regulation of blood sugar (glucose) –Insulin is secreted into the bloodstream from pancreatic cells where it signals the appropriate tissues (liver and muscle) to remove the excess glucose from the blood.
Types of Diabetes Insulin-dependent or Juvenile-onset –Caused by lack of insulin –Affects mostly children Non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset –Due to deficient insulin receptors –Malfunctioning communication system within the body
Insulin recognizes specific insulin receptors on particular cells and initiates a cascade of reactions that results in the uptake of glucose. Regardless of diabetes type, same principle works –Despite high levels of glucose in the bloodstream, the proper signal does not trigger its uptake –Individual cells begin to starve even though plenty of glucose is available.
Signalling by insulin
What happens in the absence of Insulin ? No glucose uptake Cells begin to use fats as primary source of energy. Catabolism of fats results in synthesis of ketone bodies, –Ketone bodies (acetone) are secreted into the bloodstream and function as alternative source of energy for the brain (cannot utilize fat directly) –Excess of ketone bodies are harmful Blood becomes acidic Toxic at high levels Excretion of glucose and ketones in the urine carrying along huge amounts of water and salts, severe dehydration
Reaction of muscle cells Muscle cells, requiring large amount of glucose for ATP synthesis, react the starvation by metabolizing proteins –Large amount of ammonia is produced (toxic to human) –Normally converted into to urea and excreted –Ammonia can rise to toxic level under diabetic conditions
A simple breakdown in communication results in greatly altered metabolism in many cells. The long-term effect of these changes can include kidney failure, heart disease, brain damage, and ultimately death.
Treatment of Diabetes Non-insulin-dependent –Through diet –Weight reduction Insulin-dependent –Using insulin (serves to bring insulin levels to normal) –Requires ready supply of insulin
Insulin Production Earlier, extracted from pancreas of cows and pigs Organ (pancreas) was obtained from slaughterhouses for insulin extraction Drawbacks –Due to increasing incidence of insulin-dependent Diabetes, an increased supply of insulin was required –Availability of pancreas decreased due to decreased consumption of red meat Alternative source of insulin desirable
Genetic engineering for Insulin production Creation of genetically engineered bacterial cells that produce human insulin Generation of Bacterial Factories that can produce cheap, readily available source of insulin Potential benefits of recombinant insulin –Ready source of product (bacteria easy to grow) –No allergic reaction to animal insulin
General considerations 1.Biological reactions inside and outside the cells –Isolation and purification of functional polymerases No interference or contamination from other biological molecules 2.Growing bacteria in the laboratory Need to grow bacterial cells without contamination in specific medium according to the requirement Broth (to get large quantities of cells) Agar (colony formation, to get pure culture and to observe unique properties)
Culture Types PlateBroth
3. Detecting what happened to individual molecules –Can we see DNA? –Gene? –How will we know that the tube contains DNA? –How can we say that we are manipulating out desired piece of DNA? All these issues are of primary importance in genetic engineering
Cloning and expression of Insulin 1.Obtain the gene for insulin from human DNA 2.Insert the gene into bacterial cells 3.Select cells that have desired gene 4.Induce the bacterial cells to express foreign gene in order to produce insulin 5.Collect and purify the final product, insulin
1. Obtaining the insulin gene Find the piece of DNA that codes for insulin among the rest of the DNA that makes up human gene How? The most common method –Isolate mRNA rather than DNA More copies of mRNA than the coding gene itself If obtained from pancreas, very high copy number Have poly A tail on 3 end (help in isolation of mRNA)
Conversion into cDNA and amplification of gene Reverse Transcription using reverse transcriptase (RT) –Synthesizes complementary strand of DNA using template mRNA (cDNA) DNA polymerization using DNA polymerase –Polymerase chain rection
Polymerase Chain Reaction
PCR Requirements 1.DNA (purified or a crude extract) 2.Primers specific for the target DNA 3.Free nucleotides (A, G, T, C) 4.DNA polymerase 5.Buffer (containing magnesium)
PCR Primers Usually about nucleotides in length Designed to flank the region to be amplified GC content between o C Melting point determined by G-C and A-T content –T m = 4 o C (G+C) + 2 o C (A+T) –Ex: a primer with 10 G/C and 10 A/T would have a T m of 60 o C 4(10) + 2(10)= 60 o C Tm of both primers within 2 o C Avoid hairpin, dimer and self dimer
2. Inserting genes into bacterial cells Can we insert a piece of DNA (PCR amplified) into cell? 1.Linear DNA does not enter the cell easily 2.Bacterial cells do not tolerate DNA that does not form circular structures, linear pieces are destroyed 3.It will not contain the proper signals of transcription, translation and replication systems.
Use of vector for gene insertion Genes must be incorporated into vectors (carriers) for safe introduction into bacterial cells Vectors are moved between test tube and the cell –Most common vectors are Plasmids Circular pieces of DNA found in different micro- organisms and are replicated independent of the chromosomal DNA Usually contains few genes, sometime only one (antibiotic resistance gene)
Basic Properties of Plasmids Small, easily manipulated DNA molecules Encode genes for antibiotic resistance Can be readily transferred into cells and can be isolated easily Plasmid contains signals for independent replication within cells. Contains multiple but unique cloning sites DNA inserted into plasmid will be replicated along with the plasmid DNA
Plasmid (Cloning vector)
Tools of the trade Restriction endonucleases (molecular scissors) DNA Ligase Ribonucleases Terminal transferase Polynucleotide kinase Alkaline phosphatase
Restriction endonucleases Enzymes that attack and digest internal regions of the DNA of an invading bacteriophage but not that of the host. First enzyme extracted from E. coli (cut randomly and not always close to the desired site). They break the phosphodiester bonds that link adjacent nucleotides in DNA molecules. Cut (hydrolyse) DNA into defined and REPRODUCIBLE fragments Cleave DNA in a sequence-specific manner Most restriction enzymes cut DNA which contains their recognition sequence, no matter what the source of the DNA is. Evolved as a defense mechanism against infection by foreign DNA Different restriction enzymes in different organisms
Type II RE 3 types of cuts - 5 overhang, 3 overhang, blunt 5-GAATTC-3 3-CTTAAG-5 1)5 overhang 2)3 overhang 3)blunt 5-GAATTC-3 3-CTTAAG-5 5-CCCGGG-3 3-GGGCCC-5
REs as bacterial defense system In the bacterial strain EcoR1, the sequence GAATTC will be methylated at the internal adenine base (by the EcoR1 methylase). The EcoR1 endonuclease within the same bacteria will not cleave the methylated DNA.
Methyl groups are added to C or A nucleotides in order to protect the bacterial host DNA from degradation by its own enzymes
How will you proceed for insertion of gene into vector ? No restriction site on the ends of PCR amplified gene If there is restriction site ? –If the sticky ends are compatible ? –If the ends are incompatible. One end is sticky and the other is blunt Both ends are sticky but incompatible
Insertion of recombinant DNA into host Transformation –Heat-shock method –Electroporation