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What is learning?. What makes a good comedian? Learning is the Hedgehog Concept of schools.

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Presentation on theme: "What is learning?. What makes a good comedian? Learning is the Hedgehog Concept of schools."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is learning?

2 What makes a good comedian?

3 Learning is the Hedgehog Concept of schools

4 Where does learning happen in schools?

5

6

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8 FOUR STATES RELATED TO LEARNING New Consolidated Treading Water Drowning

9 What learning isnt.

10 Learning isnt… brand new.

11 Learning isnt… being busy.

12 Learning isnt… about current performance.

13 Learning isnt… necessarily quick.

14 KNOWLEDGE Is relatively self-contained Is agreed and verifiable Is on or off Is continually increasing

15 Thinking about knowledge

16 Essential knowledge The monarchy in Thailand is held in high esteem by the majority of Thai people.

17 Essential knowledge Paris is the capital of France.

18 Motivational knowledge

19 Motivational - (Gee Whizz!) The average bee produces one twelfth of a teaspoon of honey in its lifetime. (Horizons, March 2003)

20 Motivational - (Gee Whizz!) Henry David Thoreau once burnt down 300 acres of forest trying to cook a fish he had caught for supper. (The Times, 17 April 2003)

21 Transformational The annual budget of the Afghan government is around $460m – about one half of the monthly US military spend in Afghanistan. (The Guardian, 18 March)

22 Transformational The average sale price of a house in Detroit is $ Wall Street Journal, September 2009

23 Can we identify knowledge that is…. Essential…Motivational…Transformational

24 SKILLS Are active Have to be encountered in practice Change from beginning...through developing...through mastering Are surprisingly stable

25 While teaching for understanding is a vital aim of schooling it is only one of many. We are thus not suggesting here that all teaching be geared at all times towards deep and sophisticated understanding. Clearly, there are circumstances when this depth is neither feasible nor desirable. Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Understanding by Design Only Understanding?

26 Why have I recorded the Goldberg Variations again after 20 years? Andreas Schiff, pianist, 2003 I think I understand it a little better now.

27 Its too soon to tell. What do you think of the Chinese invasion of Tibet? The Dalai Lama

28 The ability to generate a novel and philosophical idea is something one labours at over a lifetime. Colin McGinn, Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University. In Prospect magazine, November 2003

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30 The pre-frontal cortex is where our most complex thinking takes place. Recent evidence tells us that the pre-frontal cortex doesnt mature until somewhere between 18 and 23 years of age. The pre-frontal cortex

31 ...what is required for optimal cognition is a fluid balance between modes of mind that are effortful, purposeful, detailed and explicit on the one hand and those that are playful, patient and implicit on the other. We need to be able to generate ideas, and also to evaluate them. Guy Claxton, Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind, 1997 Slow Thinking

32 UNDERSTANDING Important - but Complex Fleeting Unpredictable Inconsistent

33 What is the relationship between knowledge, skills and understanding?

34 Understanding Skills Knowledge

35

36 Is there any learning going on? Is the learning appropriate? Is the learning sufficient? How is the context helping the learning? How is the context hindering the learning?

37 NewConsolidatingTreading Water Drowning Knowledge Skills Understanding Dr Robinson – I am learning what a shield wall is Mrs Dolan – I am learning how to examine maps to understand positioning Mr Dunster – I thought William was the Prince nowadays – now Im really confused Mrs Williams – I learned all about 1066 last year Ms Northey – I did do this last year but I had forgotten about the HusCarls Mr Macrae – I like to examine sources of evidence. I have practised comparing them today Mr Lowde – I feel I understand why nuclear deterrent is favoured by politicians History - SLT Battle of Hastings

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39 What helps learning happen?

40 Health and Diet

41 Dispositions

42 The view you adopt for yourself profoundly affects the way you live your life. Carol Dweck, Mindset 2006

43 Believing that your qualities are carved in stone - the fixed mindset - creates an urgency to prove yourself over and over. Every situation is evaluated: Will I succeed or fail? Will I look smart or dumb? Will I be accepted or rejected? Will I feel like a winner or a loser Carol Dweck, Mindset 2006

44 The growth mindset is based on the belief that your basic qualities are things that you can cultivate through your efforts. You can see how this believe creates a passion for learning. Why hide deficiencies instead of overcoming them? Why seek out the tried and true instead of experiences that will challenge you? Why look for friends who will shore up your self-esteem instead of ones who will also challenge you? Carol Dweck, Mindset 2006

45 Motivation

46 The research suggests that once a musician has enough ability to get into a top music school, the thing that distinguishes one performer from another is how hard he or she works. Thats it. Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers, The Story of Success 2008

47 Practice isnt the thing you do once you are good. Its the thing you do that makes you good. Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers, The Story of Success 2008

48 Differentiation

49 FOUR KINDS OF DIFFERENTIATION Learning styles Multiple Intelligences Developmentally appropriate tasks Feedback

50 According to multiple intelligence theory, there are nine basic types of intelligence. Visual-spatial Verbal-linguistic Logical-mathematical Bodily-kinesthetic Musical-rhythmic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic Existential

51 D-mode Thinking finds answers, rather than examines question treats perception as unproblematic values explanation over observation likes explanations which are justifiable and non-intuitive seeks clarity, dislikes confusion operates with a sense of urgency and impatience purposeful rather than playful precise

52 Slow Thinking Our most serious problems are not technical, nor do they arise from inadequate information. Despite the … introduction of project and course work, students continue to be largely assessed, at school...and university, on their ability to manipulate data under pressure of time. The possibility that work depends on ideas and that ideas differ in their quality as well as their up-to-dateness, and that quality takes time to mature, seems to be almost universally dismissed. Guy Claxton

53 ...what is required for optimal cognition is a fluid balance between modes of mind that are effortful, purposeful, detailed and explicit on the one hand and those that are playful, patient and implicit on the other. We need to be able to generate ideas, and also to evaluate them. Guy Claxton, Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind, 1997 Slow Thinking

54 Memory

55

56 What makes a learning-focused school different?

57 Culture: The Way we Do Things Around Here

58 Effective Schools share two characteristics. First, they are driven by learning. Second, they achieve high levels of consistency. Joe Murphy, 1998

59 Learning Weve been doing this for so long... Curriculum Assess ment Resources Teaching

60 We are reversing the process

61 Should we have been doing this? Learning Assessment Resources Teaching Curriculum

62 The Four Quadrant Model

63 Source: Adapted from A Brief History of Everything, Ken Wilbur. Shambhala Publications, Inc. Boston I IT WE ITS Building the Learning Focused School – The 4 Quadrant Model Systems and structures Evidence - both soft and hard Collective Passion Individual Passion

64 Whats the difference between x and a learning- focused x?

65 Lets think about 6 different elements Continuous Improvement Plans Recruitment Displays Newsletters Classroom Visits Parent Consultation Evenings

66 Personal Passion -Focused on others and not themselves -Learners -Learners about learning -Outcome focused -Resilient -Conventionally good teachers Source: The Looking for Learning Toolkit, 2008

67 Building the Learning Focused School – The 4 Quadrant Model Individual Passion for Learning – Your Attitude Are you a teacher, or a teacher for learning? (Self or Other oriented) How much have you learned about learning in the past year? How have you altered your teaching this year to improve learning? What question do you ask yourself at the end of each day/week/term?

68 Collective passion -Individual and collective -Different, therefore equal -Assertive, not aggressive -Consent, not consensus -Self-regulating -Situational -Now and Future Source: The Looking for Learning Toolkit, 2008

69 Building the Learning Focused School – The 4 Quadrant Model Individual Passion for Learning – Your Attitude Are you a teacher, or a teacher for learning? (Self or Other oriented?) How much have you learned about learning in the past year? How have you altered your teaching this year to improve learning? What question do you ask yourself at the end of each day/week/term? Collective Passion for Learning – Our Attitude How well do colleagues differentiate each other? How many discussions have two or more people had about learning in their classrooms? - Collaboration about learning How frequently do learning discussions occur?

70 Building the Learning Focused School – The 4 Quadrant Model Individual Passion for Learning – Your Attitude Are you a teacher, or a teacher for learning? (Self or Other oriented?) How much have you learned about learning in the past year? How have you altered your teaching this year to improve learning? What question do you ask yourself at the end of each day/week/term? Collective Passion for Learning – Our Attitude How well do colleagues differentiate each other? How many discussions have two or more people had about learning? - Collaboration about learning? How frequently do learning discussions occur? Your schools systems and structures How well does your school monitor classroom learning? What proportion of staff meetings are about learning? Is your school improvement plan learning- focused? Do you have learning-focused parents evenings, newsletters, displays etc?

71 Structures and Systems -Displays -Newsletters -Planning -Meetings -Monitoring -Feedback (to students, teachers, parents, Boards etc) Source: The Looking for Learning Toolkit, 2008

72 Building the Learning Focused School – The 4 Quadrant Model Individual Passion for Learning – Your Attitude Are you a teacher, or a teacher for learning? (Self or Other oriented) How much have you learned about learning in the past year? How have you altered your teaching this year to improve learning? What question do you ask yourself at the end of each day/week/term? Collective Passion for Learning – Our Attitude How well do colleagues differentiate each other? How many discussions have two or more people had about learning? - Collaboration about learning How frequently do learning discussions occur? Your schools systems and structures How well does your school monitor classroom learning? What proportion of staff meetings are about learning? Is your school improvement plan learning- focused? Do you have learning-focused parents evenings, newsletters, displays etc? Evidence for learning – soft and hard Does evidence inform your school improvement plan? Are you assessing and evaluating the right things? Do you use a mix of soft and hard evidence? How do you judge whether learning is happening in your classroom?

73 How would you describe your school? LuckyLeading LosingLearning

74 How would you describe your school? LuckyLeading LosingLearning Good results, low understanding of antecedents Replication of success unlikely

75 How would you describe your school? LuckyLeading LosingLearning Good results, low understanding of antecedents Replication of success unlikely Not good enough results, low understanding of antecedents Replication of failure likely

76 How would you describe your school? LuckyLeading LosingLearning Good results, low understanding of antecedents Replication of success unlikely Not good enough results, low understanding of antecedents Replication of failure likely Not good enough results, high understanding of antecedents Delivery of success likely

77 How would you describe your school? LuckyLeading LosingLearning Good results, low understanding of antecedents Replication of success unlikely Not good enough results, low understanding of antecedents Replication of failure likely Not good enough results, high understanding of antecedents Delivery of success likely Good results, high understanding of antecedents Replication of success likely

78 The Learning Dashboard

79 Evidence -ABOUT TESTS and EXAMS -Focusing on the learning that matters -About pre and post -ABOUT COMPLETED WORK -ABOUT LEARNING IN ACTION -Are they busy, or are they busy learning (L4L) -About factors that affect learning -About personal passion, collective passion, structures and systems Source: The Looking for Learning Toolkit, 2008


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