Presentation on theme: "Health and Well Being Chapters 1 & 2. Aim To understand the physiology of the human pilot. To appreciate the warning signs of ill- health and the dangers."— Presentation transcript:
Aim To understand the physiology of the human pilot. To appreciate the warning signs of ill- health and the dangers associated
Objectives 1.To understand the circulatory and respiratory systems and their limitations in aviation 2.To understand and manage the physiological effects of altitude 3.To learn the indicators of poor health and how various illnesses can be managed in the aviation environment 4.To appreciate the importance of keeping physically and mentally fit
1. Circulatory & Respiratory Systems Blood cells (plasma) contain an iron-rich pigment, haemoglobin, which moves around the body under pressure to deliver oxygen and other nutrients as well as removing waste products Oxygenated blood (red) leaves the heart through arteries, delivering oxygen/nutrients to the various organs and returns de-oxygenated (blue) to the heart through veins It is at the lungs, under partial pressure, where blood swaps Carbon Dioxide for Oxygen (ratio 1:4 - haemoglobin:O2) The brain monitors Carbon Dioxide in the bloodstream and makes inference of oxygen levels. It responds as necessary with the bodys heart rate and rate of breath The brain does not monitor O2 levels directly, only CO2 levels! Whats the risk here? Circulatory System
1. Circulatory & Respiratory Systems Circulatory System Blood pressure is measured at the walls of the main arteries and has two values (max: systolic and min: diastolic) A typical heart rate monitor showing Systolic (118) and diastolic (78) pressures
1. Circulatory & Respiratory Systems Respiratory System As we inhale… Oxygen diffuses through thin walls of the lungs and is absorbed into the blood, carried to the organs and used in the production of energy. As we exhale… Waste Carbon Dioxide, a by-product of the production of energy, is carried by the blood to the lung, where it is excreted through the lung walls and exhaled with spent air. At each organ, Oxygen is required in the production of energy.
2. Physiological Effect of Altitude Expansion of gases As we climb through the atmosphere, environmental pressure decreases Inside the body, where pressure is comparably higher, gases inside cavities expand. (E.g. Gastro-Intestinal gases, imperfect teeth fillings, Eustachian tube gases - especially during a cold!) Hints: Avoid leafy greens, legumes, broccoli, breads, beans before you fly Make sure you have a good dentist! Dont fly with a cold
2. Physiological Effect of Altitude Hypoxia For Oxygen to be absorbed into the blood stream, it needs to be delivered at a partial pressure By 9000 altitude, O2 partial pressure reduces by approx. half.
2. Physiological Effect of Altitude Hypoxia At 10,000, the blood remains about 90% saturated with O2, however above this, partial pressure of O2 starts to reduce below allowable limits. The handwriting of a subject who was taken to 25,000ft without Oxygen.
2. Physiological Effect of Altitude Hypoxia CASA 20.4 (6.1) A flight crew member who is on flight deck duty in an unpressurised aircraft must be provided with, and continuously use, supplemental oxygen at all times during which the aircraft flies above 10 000 feet altitude. Oxygen is required under pressure for continuous flight above 10,000. CASA Hypoxia Video Why do smokers have it worse?
2. Physiological Effect of Altitude Other effects Barotrauma Avoid equalising pressure too quickly Dehydration Keep fluids up, even in cold cockpits Decompression Sickness The Bends (greater than 33ft) Min. 4 hrs after dive not requiring decompression stops Min. 12 hrs after a dive >4 hrs requiring decompression stops 48 hours after a 4+ hour dive requiring decompression stops Hyperventilation Restore CO2 levels CO poisoning Avoid heaters if suspected faulty.
3. Health & Well Being Health Indicators Blood Pressure Systolic pressure is the maximum pressure applied at the artery walls when the heart pumps (120-130mmHg). Diastolic is the minimum pressure when the heart pauses between pumps (80-85mmHg). Lower pressures are better, high blood pressure (hypertension) needs to be managed. Optimal blood pressure is around 120/80 (mmHG)
3. Health & Well Being Health Indicators Cholesterol Occurs naturally as High Density Lipo-Protein (HDL) and Low-Density Lipo-Protein LDL (bad cholesterol) rises with the intake of Trans-Fatty acids and animal fats and needs to be managed As cholesterol increases (especially LDL), arteries can become clogged leading to Angina, atherosclerosis and other Coronary disease As total and LDL cholesterol increase, Cardiac Risk Factor increases
3. Health & Well Being Health Indicators Obesity Obesity can have significant health, social and economic impacts, and is very closely related to lack of exercise and to diet. Being overweight or obese increases the risk of suffering from a range of health conditions, including coronary heart disease Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, Measures of Australia's Progress, 2010, www.abs.gov.au. Accessed May 2013Measures of Australia's Progress, 2010www.abs.gov.au Hints: Eat in moderation and in proportion with exercise. Eat high calorie foods only in moderation Consider foods with a low Glycemic Index. Dont get caught out by 99% fat free as high sugar levels can metabolise to fat storage
3. Health & Well Being Medical Certificates Initial issue – ECG, Audiogram, Opthamology exam, blood and urine test Class 1 (Valid 12 months) Required to exercise the privileges of an ATPL, CPL, flight engineer Renewals thereafter may include: ECG (25th, 30th, 32nd, 34th, 36th, 38th and 40th birthdays, then annually) Audiograms and lipids/blood glucose (after the 25th birthday then every fifth birthday) Ophthalmologist (60 th birthday and then two-yearly intervals) Class 2 (Valid 4yrs if age 40) Required to exercise the privileges of an SPL, PPL, FROL Class 3 (Valid 2 years) Required to exercise the privileges of an ATC
3. Health & Well Being I.M.S.A.F.E. Handout Should I Have Flown CASR 67.265 Illness Certain illnesses should never be taken into the air. Physical impairments, heart attacks, strokes, diabetes, kidney stones, ulcers, colds & ear infections, stress/ anxiety, headaches, nausea. Would you fly a sick aeroplane? Medication What are you masking? Prescribed drugs require DAME certification. Even over the counter drugs are on the banned substance list (e.g. codeine) DO NOT FLY unless a DAME has authorised you
3. Health & Well Being I.M.S.A.F.E. Stress A reasonable level stress is normal, e.g. a looming exam or assignment Deal with your stress by prioritising workload and breaking tasks down into smaller, more achievable goals Cognitive Symptoms Emotional Symptoms Memory problems Inability to concentrate Poor judgment Seeing only the negative Anxious or racing thoughts Constant worrying Moodiness Irritability or short temper Agitation, inability to relax Feeling overwhelmed Sense of loneliness and isolation Depression or general unhappiness Physical SymptomsBehavioural Symptoms Aches and pains Diarrhoa or constipation Nausea, dizziness Chest pain, rapid heartbeat Loss of sex drive Frequent colds Eating more or less Sleeping too much or too little Isolating yourself from others Procrastinating or neglecting responsibilities Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing) Stress Warning Signs & Symptoms Alcohol 0.02% BAC, 8 hours before aviation sensitive activities Alcohol is a depressant and can become a dependence Hangover effects can last up to 72 hours
3. Health & Well Being I.M.S.A.F.E. Fatigue Similar effects to alcohol – reduced concentration and reaction time Chronic fatigue needs to be addressed at the underlying problem High cockpit workload can be fatiguing – ensure sufficient sleep and bring snacks and water! Eat & Drink Avoid Hypohydration - On longer flights, (especially high altitudes, hot days) your body can lose a lot of water. Water is required to dissolve nutrients, carry waste products, lubricate joints and regulate temperature. Avoid diuretics, KEEP HYDRATED! Avoid Hypoglycemia - In high workload flights, your mental energy level can exceed your glucose supply. When supply of glucose to the brain, you become impaired. Consider low GI snacks.
3. Health & Well Being Tips for keeping fit Keep hydrated with 1-2L of water per day Eat a substantial breakfast and consider smaller wholesome snacks throughout the day Exercise daily consisting of aerobic (cardio) exercises and strengthening of muscles. Always opt for the stairs instead of lift/escalator and consider walking to or even parking a little further away from your destination. Exercise should be enjoyed! Ensure 6-8 hours of sleep per night Dont smoke Limit alcohol to 21-28 standards per week (men) or 14-20 (women) Monitor calorific content and limit foods high in fat (especially saturated fats) Eat fish twice a week, or introduce fish oil supplements into your diet
3. Health & Well Being Drugs Never take non-prescribed drugs. If you think drugs are necessary, see your DAME Questionable Prescription Drugs (see your DAME) Antihistamines: Hayfever & allergy (may cause drowsiness) Decongestants: Blocked nose/hayfever (may cause drowsiness) Analgesics: Pain relief (may cause nausea and/or hypertension Antacids: Relief from reflux/heartburn (generally safe) Antimalerial: To stave off malerial infection (may cause vertigo) Anti-diarrhoa: Relief from diarrhoea. Must be free of opiods. (Dehydrating and debilitating)
3. Health & Well Being Illicit Drugs Cannibis (THC) Detrimental effect on situational awareness and management of aeroplane states Effects can last up to 24 hours however THC remains detectable in the urine for up to 20 days (one off) or 90 days (heavy use) Amphetamine (speed, ecstasy) Stimulate CNS to increase focus and maintain wakefulness, however the affect on serotonin re-uptake and norepinephrine system can cause psychoses, especially schizophrenia. Certain medications (especially those used in ADHD & narcolepsy metabolise into amphetamines (Benzedrine, Vyvanse) Side effects also include hyperactivity, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, twitching, numbness, palpitations, arrhythmias, convulsions. Enough said!
3. Health & Well Being Illicit Drugs Opiates Commonly morphine and heroin, however many medications metabolise to opiates (codeine, oxycodone, poppy seeds) Side effects include sedation, psychomotor impairment, respiratory depression, constipation, euphoria. Opioids also tend to be dangerously addictive Cocaine Derived from the coca plant, common effects include feelings of euphoria and invincibility, increased energy and apparent pace, anxiety, agitation, paranoia, aggressive and unpredictable behaviour, hypertension. Higher doses can lead to nausea, tremors, chest pain, kidney failure, seizures, brain haemorrhage and death. Also highly addictive (so Im told…)