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600-1450A.D. This era was time of centralization and coming together. You can see this in the empires of china the creation of kingdoms in Europe. the.

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Presentation on theme: "600-1450A.D. This era was time of centralization and coming together. You can see this in the empires of china the creation of kingdoms in Europe. the."— Presentation transcript:

1 600-1450A.D. This era was time of centralization and coming together. You can see this in the empires of china the creation of kingdoms in Europe. the movement away from tribal life in Africa and the emergence of empire in the Americas.

2 Reign Of Charlemagne 768-814 AD Significance: Charlemagne reestablished centralized rule in the Frankish empire Charlemagne was the first Holy Roman Emperor Carolingian Empire Louis the Pious and the Dissolution of empire

3 Significance: In the Chinese Empires, the Sui and Tang Dynasties laid the foundations for later economic and technological development. Medieval Japan: Daimyo and Samurai VS the Lords and serfs of Medieval Europe Resurgence of Dynasties in East Asia

4 Spanish arrival in Mexico 1519 Significance: Created a tie between the Old eastern world and the new western world. Also showed European dominance in the new world.

5 Crusades 1095-1204 Significance: The result was a large scale exchange of ideas, technologies and trade goods that profoundly influenced European development. Such as the ideas of Aristotle, and the Arabic numbers. Also this introduced new foods into Europe such as sugar, coffee and spices. First crusade Later crusades Consequences

6 Introduction of Bananas in Africa Significance: Resulted in population boom in Africa and provided nutritious supplement to the Africans diet. Increased Bantu food supply, which allowed for rapid Bantu expansion.

7 Mongol Conquests 1211-1279 Significance: Reestablished silk roads as major trade route. Strengthened ties between cultures.

8 The Powerful Kingdoms of Africa Ghana-between Niger and Senegal rivers was largest gold supply available at time was major area for Islam raids weakened empire and weak political leadership lead to its downfall Zimbabwe-increased world trade, with the trans Saharan trade. Islam brought many cultural and political changes Christian Kingdom of Axum: Christian kingdom, possibly converted to improve relations with other powerful kingdoms, missionaries converted many people. Kingdom of Kongo: population pressures and military challenges encouraged kin-based societies, participated actively in Atlantic trade networks, very centralized. Mansa Musa: pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324-1325, had so much gold its value declined, established religious schools and brought Arabian teachers, helped spread Islam in Africa Kingdom of Mali: benefited from Trans-Saharan trade, controlled taxes and trade throughout West Africa, honored Islam, did not force Islam but encouraged it Swahili trading cities in East Africa: governed by a king who supervised trade and organized public life in the region. These states got wealthy from controlling and taxing trade

9 Medieval Europe Lords: A prominent political and or military figure of a manor Serfs: not chattel slaves subject to sale on a masters whim, they were semi free individuals that owed obligations to the lords whose land they cultivated Fiefdoms: The estate or domain of a feudal lord. Manor systems: A manor was a very large estate consisting of fields, meadows, forests, agricultural tools, domesticated animals, sometimes rivers or lakes, and serfs bound to the land Population growth: declined due to epidemic plagues but by 1000 the population amounted to 32 million.

10 Middle Ages in Europe Urbanization: With abundant supplies of food, European society was able to support large numbers of urban residents-artisans, craft workers, merchants, and professionals. Attracted by urban opportunities, peasants and serfs from the countryside flocked to established cities and founded new towns at strategically located sites. Improved agricultural techniques: They experimented with new crops and with different cycles of crop rotation to ensure the most abundant harvests possible without compromising the fertility of the soil. They kept more domesticated animals which provided beasts of burden, sources of food, and cultivated land with droppings. New crops: During the early middle ages, the European diet consisted of mostly grains and grain products such as bread ands gruel. During the centuries of 1000 to 1300, meat, dairy products, fish, vegetables, and legumes such as beans and peas became more prominent in European diets New technologies: horseshoes helped to prevent softened and split hooves. Horse collar placed the burden of a heavy load on an animals chest and shoulders rather than their neck and enabled horses to pull heavier loads. Population growth: Three estates: Those who pray, those who fight, those who work Chivalry: informal code of ethics and behavior considered appropriate for nobles Guilds: regulated the production and sale of goods within their own jurisdicitons,

11 The Arrival of the Plague Because of the heavy demographic toll it levied, bubonic plague disrupted societies and economies throughout Eurasia and North Africa.

12 Remarkable Voyages of the Age Christopher Columbus: Had the idea of sailing west to reach Asian markets. Fernando and Isabel of Spain, agreed to underwrite a voyage. In 1492 he set sailed across the Atlantic Ocean, reaching land at San Salvador in the Bahamas. Vasco de Gama: In 1497 departed Portugal with the intention of sailing to India. After rounding the Cape of Good Hope, he cruised up the east African coast and found a Muslim pilot who showed him how to take advantage of the monsoon winds to sail across the Arabian sea to India. In 1498 he arrived at Calicut. Zheng He: For 30 years, the Ming government sponsored a series of seven massive naval expeditions designed to establish Chinese presence in the Indian ocean basin. On the first three voyages went to southeast Asia, India, and Ceylon. The fourth expedition went to the Persian gulf and Arabia, and later expeditions ventured down the east African coast. Bartolomeu Dias: in 1488, he had sailed around the Cape of Good Hope, and the Indian Ocean Basin

13 Early Empires and Societies in Latin and North America Aztecs: Northwest Mexico, Conquered cities of the high plateaus between Tenochtitlan and the gulf coast. Had an alliance with the Texcoco and Tlacopan. Had no elaborate bureaucracy or administration. Social structure was a rigid hierarchical. Extremely polytheistic, sacrificed many people to the gods. Incas: Settled around Lake Titicaca, had irrigation systems, They ruled as military and administrative elites. Military mostly consisted of conquered peoples. Had an extensive road system easier within the empire. The main classes in Inca society were rulers, aristocrats

14 Vikings The Vikings set out on highly organized, raids on various European countries, which prompted the establishment of small kingdoms in England, the downfall of Carloginian rule in Germany and the proliferation of local authorities in France.

15 Spanish Reconquista Following the Muslim invasion and conquest of the early eighth century the caliphate of Cordoba rule almost all of the Iberian peninsula. The Reconquista began in the 1060s by the few Christians remaining in Spain. And by 1150 they had reclaimed over half of Spain and launched the final campaign in 1492 and completed the Reconquista.

16 The Political Progression of Japan Nara: (710-794) Instituted Chinese style bureaucracy. implemented an equal-field system and moved the capital to Nara. Implemented Buddhism and Confucianism but retained Shinto rites. Heian Period: (794-1185) court moved to Heian. Honshu bowed to Japan. Emperors were figure heads. Power with Fujiwara family. Kamakura Period: (1185-1333) Japan developed a decentralized society. In which provincial lords wielded power. The lords didnt require a central government so they did away with. This was the beginning of feudalism in Japan. Muromachi Period: (1336-1573) Throughout this period Japan retained its decentralization and feudalism

17 The Political Progression of China Sui Dynasty: (589-618) Imposed tight political disciple on all of china. Organized many public works projects including the grand canal. which allowed for crops to be more easily brought from southern china to northern china. The canal integrated the economies of northern and southern china, thereby establishing an economic foundation for political and cultural unity. Tang Dynasty: (618-907) organized china into a powerful, productive and prosperous society. Maintained communication. Introduced equal field system which ensured an equitable distribution of land. Relied on bureaucracy based on merit. Which means you are picked for government positions not born into it. The tang dynasty also expanded china with military conquest. Song Dynasty: (960-1279) never built powerful state focused more on civil administration industry and education rather than on military conquest. Resulted in more centralized society In all of these empires the silk road served as a way for economic and cultural connection to the rest of the world

18 Life of Muhammad and Development of Islam Quran: The holy book of Islam was a compling of Muhhamids visions. Hijra: this was when Muhammad fled to Medina to escape persecution. Umayyad dynasty: Umayyads were prominent Meccan merchant class and their network of alliances allowed them to gain control of the Islamic community. They had an extremely centralized empire. However the clan began to drift from other Arabs with their luxurious life style and were eventually brought down by rebellion. Abbasid dynasty: far more cosmopolitian then the Umayyad dynasty. Other peoples began to show in government. Clashed with central Asians. Continued expansion. Baghdad the capital flourished as wealth was gained. However soon after this succession disputes weakened the empire. And eventually led to its downfall.

19 Late Byzantine Empire Reign of Leo III: was convinced that the veneration of religious images was sinful, tantamount to the worship of physical idols. And in 726 he embarked on iconoclasm which was the breaking of the idols. Destroying idols and prohibiting their use. Monasteries: Throughout the 4 th century AD the Byzantine people established many monasteries the most prominent being Mt. Athos. This was the first monastery where monks were extremely focused and devout. Great Schism: Split between Byzantine patriarchs and Roman popes. Both disputed their respective rights and powers. In 1054 the Patriarch and Pope mutually excommunicated each other. Despite efforts at reconciliation the schism persists to even today. Fall of Constantinople: However challenges from foreign peoples weakened the empire and it fell in 1204 with the fourth crusade destroying Constantinople.

20 Southeast Asia Vietnam: the peoples of Vietnam resisted Chinese incursion. However the lightly armed peoples were no match for the massive Chinese armies. But eventually they were forced to take on Confucianism and examinations based on a Chinese –style education and Vietnamese merchants were forced to sell their goods to Chinese markets. Korea: Korea experienced many of the same influences as the Vietnamese did. They built their court system along Chinese lines and studied Chinese thought and literature.

21 Empire of India Reign of Harsha: (606-648) temporarily restored unified rule in most of India by force. Provided free medical care. Liberally distributed wealth. Chola kingdom: (850-1267) ruled over south India the Coromandel coast. Allowed local rulers to keep jurisdiction as long as they paid taxes. Were overthrown in the 13 th century. Kingdom of Angkor: Buddhist kingdom that derived its income from agriculture and not trade. Had native southeast Asian culture. Capital at Angkor magnificent city with splendid art and culture. Bhakti movement: Movement in the 16 th century that sought to erase the boundaries of Islam and Buddhism Sultanate of Delhi: Muhammad's Islamic successors wished to conquer northern India and they did so in 1206 by forming the Sultanate of Delhi they never had much power even though they commanded and army over over 300,000. they faced constant hindu resistance and had little influence outside their realm. Vijayanagar: created in response to Delhi. Renounced Islam and returned to Hindu beliefs. Was not a large highly centralized state like that in the Mediterranean or China Ramanuja: influenced devotional cults. Fallowed Bhagavad Gita in recommending great devotion to Vishnu. Relied on faith rather than logic.

22 Roles of Women Islam: Quaran outlawed female infanticde and provided that dowries went directly to brides rather than to their husbands or male guardians. Men were equal to women. However it asserted male dominance. This is shown with the veiling of women. Europe: Chivalry gave women a more prominent role in society this was shown by women like Eleanor of Aquitaine. However in most societies at the time including these two there was a male dominated highly patriarchal society.

23 Comparisons of Trade Networks Silk road: main road between China and India was main land trade route Trans Sahara: (Gold Trade/Slave Trade) brought income to Africa connected Africa to Europe and the rest of the world Indian Ocean: brought income to India and allowed India to excel in politics technology and to influence later societies.

24 Comparisons of Politics China: several dynasties extremely centralized, many technological innovations. Europe: Decentralized many small empires. Feudalism. Americas: no elaborate bureaucracy (except Inca) led by priests conquered neighboring peoples. India: Regional kingdoms eventually decentralized. Centralized for periods of time.

25 Comparisons of Religions Islam: monotheistic, Muhammad last prophet, expanded through conquests and trade, Quran, takes pilgrimage to Mecca, preached equality, believes in heaven and hell, worships Allah. Christianity: monotheistic, Jesus last prophet, preached equality, Bible, no necessary journey, believes in heaven and hell, worships god.

26 Comparisons of Conquest Mongol: the Mongol empire conquered china ruthlessly Spanish: Cortes came to Mexico and with the help of disease (smallpox) and guns, his very small army defeated the whole Aztec empire. Mahmud of Ghanzi conquered Northern India (1001-1027 CE)


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