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Fragments How to Identify and Correct Them NEC FACET Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Fragments How to Identify and Correct Them NEC FACET Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fragments How to Identify and Correct Them NEC FACET Center

2 What makes a sentence a sentence? A sentence must have A subject A verb A complete thought (says something about something) Complete sentence subjectverb complete thought

3 Grammar review A verb is: The main action of a sentence The dog barked at the furry rabbit. All of the choir members sang in unison. Verna discovered a new way of researching.

4 Grammar review A subject is: The part of a sentence that the main verb is speaking directly about The dog barked at the furry rabbit. All of the choir members sang in unison. Verna discovered a new way of researching.

5 What is a fragment? An incomplete thought, posing as a sentence. (It is not a complete sentence.) A fragment is missing. Sorry. A fragment is missing something.

6 Which of these are fragments? In the morning, I bought. Because the drive home seems so long. Talking to the neighbor downstairs. From morning to night. All of these phrases are fragments. These are either missing a subject or a verb, or they are not making a complete thought.

7 There are 4 main types of fragments. Dependent-word fragments -ing and to fragments Added-detail fragments Missing-subject fragments

8 1. Dependent word fragments These are tricky because they do have a subject and verb. However, they do not make a complete thought.

9 Clauses A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. An independent clause contains a subject, a verb, and makes a complete thought. A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but it does not make a complete thought. A dependent clause depends on an independent clause to complete the thought. Dependent Clause Independent Clause Complete Sentence

10 Independent Clause Example: Bob joined the circus. Verb Subject The entire sentence makes a complete thought This sentence contains a subject, a verb, and makes sense when it stands alone.

11 Dependent Clause Example: Although the book belonged to Jim. verb subject This sentence has a subject and a verb, but it leaves us hanging. Dont leave me hanging!

12 Subordinating words Certain words can change an independent clause into a dependent clause. These are called subordinating conjunctions, and they introduce a dependent clause. Example: Even though the coffee shop is open late in the evening. Subordinating conjunction

13 Subordinating Conjunctions After, although, though, as, because, before, even though, how, if, even if, in order that, since, that, so that, unless, until, what, whatever, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, which, whichever, while, who, whoever, whose, once, provided that, whereas, rather than Watch out for these words!

14 Correcting Dependent Statements Revision method #1: take away the subordinating conjunction and capitalize the next word. Example: Even though The coffee shop is open late in the evening. Subordinating conjunction This method tends to create short, choppy sentences. Use it sparingly!

15 Correcting Dependent Statements Revision method #2: combine the dependent clause with an independent clause to create a complete sentence. Example: Even though the coffee shop is open late in the evening, it is not open 24 hours. Rule: If the dependent clause includes a subordinating conjunction and comes at the beginning of the sentence, use a comma to set it apart from the independent clause. This lets the reader know the information before the comma cannot stand alone as an independent statement. Subordinating Conjunction Independent Clause

16 Examples: After you take out the trash. Since the mail carrier brought the mail late. Until we buy a new microwave. These do not make complete thoughts. After you take out the trash, please help me wash the dishes. We did not get the letter until 5:00 p.m. since the mail carrier brought the mail late. Until we buy a new microwave, we will have to make our popcorn on the stove.

17 Can you fix these dependent-word fragments? Whenever the timer rings. After we meet with my daughters teacher. Which came as quite a surprise since we had no idea.

18 Things to remember: Use a comma if the dependent clause is at the beginning of a sentence. Do NOT use a comma if the dependent clause is at the end of a sentence. Ex: Even though it was 2:30 a.m., the telephone rang. Ex: The telephone rang even though it was 2:30 a.m.

19 2. –ing and to fragments Trying to thread the needle. To become a better writer. To finish this paperwork by noon today. Flying in on United from San Diego. These thoughts are incomplete. I spent several minutes trying to thread the needle. To become a better writer, you must practice writing several times a week. I will try to finish this paperwork by noon today. My cousin will be flying in on United from San Diego.

20 Identifying -ing fragments These fragments often lack a subject. They usually refer to the subject in the previous sentence. Example: I stayed at home all day. Waiting for the doctor to return my call. The –ing fragment is referring to the subject I.

21 Identifying -ing fragments Sometimes -ing fragments lack a subject and a verb. She plans to visit France. During summer break. Who is doing what during the summer semester? The –ing fragment is referring to the subject she from the previous sentence. It is also referring to the verb phrase plans to visit.

22 Correcting -ing fragments 1. Attach the –ing fragment to the sentence before it or after it according to what makes sense. She plans to visit France. During summer break. Nearing the school zone. I slowed the car to 25 miles per hour. She plans to visit France during summer break. Nearing the school zone, I slowed the car to 25 miles per hour.

23 Correcting -ing fragments 2. Add a subject and change the –ing verb to the correct form. Check for subject- verb agreement. Studying constantly. I will succeed in English. The business grew last year. Including a new IT division. I study constantly, so I will succeed in English. The business grew last year to include a new IT division.

24 Correcting to fragments Attach the fragment to the sentence before it or after it depending on what makes sense. I plan on leaving Friday. To go hiking in the mountains. To ensure his prompt arrival. Paul left the house twenty minutes early. I plan on leaving Friday to go hiking in the mountains. To ensure his prompt arrival, Paul left the house twenty minutes early.

25 Can you fix these fragments? Wanting more out of life. To wash dishes, clean the house, and mow the lawn. Keeping the dog for my sister-in-law.

26 3. Added-detail fragments These are missing a subject, a verb, or both. Especially Except For example Including Such as Also They sometimes begin with one of these words.

27 Examples of added-detail fragments Especially the blue, red, and yellow ones. Including some of the old pictures I found in the attic. For example, the yellow rose bushes in the backyard. I love the new picture frames you bought, especially the blue, red, and yellow ones. I will bring some family pieces to the reunion, including some old pictures I found in the attic. For example, I will trim the yellow rose bushes in the backyard.

28 Correcting added-detail fragments 1. Attach the fragment to the preceding sentence to make a complete thought. Rule: Use a comma before transitional words (except, such as, for example, including). Except when I fall out of the boat. My favorite summer activity is sailing, except when I fall out of the boat!

29 Correcting added-detail fragments 2.Add a subject and verb to make it a complete sentence. Example: Like flames under his feet! Aaron dances like there are flames under his feet!

30 Can you fix these fragments? Except for the macaroni and cheese. For example, the bus station on Harvard. Such as eggs, bacon, toast, and coffee.

31 4. Missing-subject fragments And then forgot to take a pen and paper with me. Also, began to complain against my supervisor. But discovered nothing was there except for a piece of paper with my name on it. Then I forgot to take a pen and paper with me. She also began to complain against my supervisor. But I discovered there was nothing there except for a piece of paper with my name on it. These are all missing a subject! Now these are correct!

32 Correcting missing-subject fragments Missing-subject fragments, like –ing and to fragments, usually refer to the subject in the previous sentence. 2 ways to correct these fragments: 1. attach it to the preceding sentence. 2. add a subject. Each sentence must have a subject and a verb! Do not assume the subject and verb carry over from the preceding sentence.

33 Can you correct these fragments? Began watching the show without her because I didnt want to wait. And stopped in at the front desk on her way to the elevator. Bargain shopped for a long time before he found this amazing piece.

34 Last tip: To decide whether a group of words is a sentence or a fragment, Look from one period to another period and ask: 1.Does this have a subject and a verb? 2.Does it make a complete thought?

35 Locate the fragments in this paragraph by looking from one period to another period. Tomorrow we will begin our new diet. Which consists of fruit, vegetables, nuts, and some lean meats. Because we will crave fatty foods. We will need to stay away from McDonalds and load our kitchen with healthy foods. Making sure we keep a log in our food journals. When the weekend comes. We will treat ourselves. To one ice-cream cone from Braums and one other high-calorie snack. I am ready for this diet. Because I am tired of feeling sluggish and overweight.

36 (The fragments are in bold.) How can we fix these? Tomorrow we will begin our new diet. Which consists of fruit, vegetables, nuts, and some lean meats. Because we will crave fatty foods. We will need to stay away from McDonalds and load our kitchen with healthy foods. Making sure we keep a log in our food journals. When the weekend comes. We will treat ourselves. To one ice-cream cone from Braums and one other high-calorie snack. I am ready for this diet. Because I am tired of feeling sluggish and overweight.

37 Tomorrow we will begin our new diet, which consists of fruit, vegetables, nuts, and some lean meats. Because we will crave fatty foods, we will need to stay away from McDonalds and load our kitchen with healthy foods. We will also keep a log in our food journals. When the weekend comes, we will treat ourselves to one ice-cream cone from Braums and one other high-calorie snack. I am ready for this diet because I am tired of feeling sluggish and overweight.

38 Remember... Keep these rules in mind as you edit your work.


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