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PREVALENCE OF MUSCLE DYSMORPHIA IN INDIAN BODY BUILDERS Presenting Author: – Sai Kishore B Authors:- Sandhu J S, Sai Kishore B, Shenoy S Deptartment of.

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Presentation on theme: "PREVALENCE OF MUSCLE DYSMORPHIA IN INDIAN BODY BUILDERS Presenting Author: – Sai Kishore B Authors:- Sandhu J S, Sai Kishore B, Shenoy S Deptartment of."— Presentation transcript:

1 PREVALENCE OF MUSCLE DYSMORPHIA IN INDIAN BODY BUILDERS Presenting Author: – Sai Kishore B Authors:- Sandhu J S, Sai Kishore B, Shenoy S Deptartment of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. 33 rd Congress Indian Association of Sports Medicine November 19-20, 2011 PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

2 INTRODUCTION Muscle dysmorphia is defined as the chronic preoccupation that one is insufficiently muscular ( or sometimes, especially in the case of women, both muscular and lean ), Ebbeck et al (2009). It should be noted that muscle dysmorphia appears to represent a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder, which was earlier termed as reverse anorexia nervosa, Pope et al (1997).

3 INTRODUCTION Pope et al, 1997 (p556), has proposed the following criterias for an individual to be diagnosed as muscle dysmorphia. the person has a preoccupation with the idea that ones body is not sufficiently lean and muscular. Characteristics include long hours of lifting weights and excessive attention to diet. the individual frequently gives up important social, occupational, or recreational activities because of a compulsive need to maintain his/her workout and diet schedule. the individual avoids situations where his/her body is exposed to others, or endures such situations only with marked distress or intense anxiety. the individual continues to work out, diet, or use ergogenic (performance- enhancing) substances despite knowledge of adverse physical or psychological consequences.

4 AIMS To check the prevalence of muscle dysmorphia in Indian body builders. To check the personality of the individual using the Vienna Testing System (VTS) and to determine which personality shows more Muscle Dysmorphia symptoms. To check whether these symptomatic individuals are oriented towards one particular personality or not.

5 STUDY DESIGN STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE SIZE: 100 INCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects who are males. Subjects aged between years of age. Subjects who are identified as symptomatic to Muscle Dysmorphia Subjects who are body builders. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: This is just a questionnaire method and there is no such exclusion criteria as long as the subject is not willing to participate in the study. INSTRUMENTATION: Vienna Testing System (VTS) – Eysenck Personality Profiler (shorter version).

6 VIENNA TESTING SYSTEM

7 METHODOLOGY The 6 factor – 27 item Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI) questionnaire first. Based on the scoring system of the MDI the individuals who are symptomatic to Muscle Dysmorphia were identified. Those symptomatic body builders were then made to answer the personality questionnaire EPP6 on the Vienna Testing System. There were a total of 200 questions on the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP6) which were related to the three peronality traits (Extraversion, Emotionality, Adventureness) and there is a definite possibility of every individual to be characterized under any one of these three traits upon completion.

8 CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE There is no statistical data regarding muscle dysmorphia in the Indian population. It is important to establish the prevalence and severity of this condition in the worlds largest democracy and this study aims to examine the prevalence of dysmorphic symptoms in relation to the personality of the Indian body building population. Extraversion = p<0.05 (Significant) Adventurousness = p<0.05 (Significant) Emotionality = p>0.05 (Non-significant) FACTORSAGEEXTRAVERSIONADVENTUROUSNESSEMOTIONALITY MEAN (S.D) (3.54)23.4 (4.78)19.52 (7.39)18.27 (4.73) CHI P-VALUE (SIG)0.006 (SIG)0.247 (NON SIG)

9 RESULT – SHOWING THE AVERAGE SCORES OF THE THREE PERSONALITY TRAITS

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13 DISCUSSION Not all body builders were muscle dysmorphic. The MDI questionnaire helped to identify the symptomatic body builders. The higher the score is, the more symptomatic they are. A fact to be noted is the age at which these traits were at its peak for the symptomatic body builders. Bodybuilders with muscle dysmorphia who have fell into a preoccupation that one is insufficiently muscular and lean are constantly exposed through television, movies, magazines and other sources to an idealized male body image that is far more muscular than an average man - AN UNDENIABLE FACT.

14 CONCLUSION This study clearly shows that muscle dysmorphia is prevalent among the Indian body building population. The Eysenck Personality Profiler clearly showed that, for the proportion of the subjects, extraversion predominates over the other traits. The body building population is most affected by muscle dysmorphia where negative aspect of their own body image makes them to compare their body size with their colleagues. But, body building alone cannot be considered to cause such Body Dismorphic Disorder (BDD), as it allows a gate-way to identify vulnerable men who are susceptible to their drive for mascularity.

15 REFERENCES: Ebbeck, Vicki, Watkins, Patti Lou, Concepcion, Rebecca Y., Cardinal, Bradley J. and Hammermeister, Jon, Muscle Dysmorphia Symptoms and Their Relationships to Self-concept and Negative Affect Among College Recreational Exercisers, 2009, Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, 21,3, D.J.Rhea, C.D. Lantz, A.E. Cornelius, Development of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI), 2004, Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 44,4, Christopher D. Lantz, Deborah J. Rhea, and Allen E. Cornelius, Muscle Dysmorphia in Elite-Level Power Lifters and Bodybuilders: A Test of Differences Within a Conceptual Model, 2002, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16,4, B. Mangweth, H.G. Pope, Jr., G. Kemmler, C. Ebenbichler, A. Hausmann, C. De Col, B. Kreutner, J. Kinzl, W. Biebl, Body Image and Psychopathology in Male Bodybuilders, 2001, Psychother Psychosom, 70,

16 REFERENCES: Roberto Olivardia, Harrison G. Pope, Jr., James I. Hudson, Muscle Dysmorphia in Male Weightlifters: A Case- control Study, 2000, American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, Harrison G. Pope, Jr., Amanda J. Grubber, Barbara Mangweth, Benjamin Bureau, Christine deCol, Roland Jouvent, James I. Hudson, Body Image Perception Among Men in Three Countries, 2000, American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, Harrison G. Pope, Jr., Amanda J. Grubber, Precilla Choi, Roberto Olivardia, Katharine A. Phillips, Muscle Dysmorphia-An Underrecognized Form of Body Dysmorphic Disorder, 1997, Psychosomatics, 38, Michael Strober, The Relation of Personality Characteristics to Body Image Disturbances in Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: A Multivariate Analysis, 1981, Psychomatic Medicine, 43, 4,

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