Chemical groups Other substances (no real food) Fats Vitamins Proteins Carbohydrates Mineral salt WaterFibre
They contain : Carbon ; Hydrogen ; Oxygen ; Nitrogen ; Solphur ( sometimes) Functions of proteins: Motion and locomotion of celles ; The Catalysis of all biochemical reactions; The structure of celles is largely made of protein ; The transport of materials in body fluids depends on proteins ; The receptors for hormones ; The differentiation of the cells. Collagen (tissutes and ligaments) They consist of smaller unitscalled amino acids. Keratins (Hair and nails )
Glucose Galactose Monosaccharides or single sugars, soluble and easily digested. They are divided into 3 groups Refined and Unrefined General molecular formula C n (H 2 O) n They contain: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Fructose Disaccharides, sugars composed of two monosaccharides. Maltose Sucrose Lactose Polysaccharides, very complex carbohydrates. Cellulose Glycogen Starches
It after our eyes, throat and lungs, and our skin looks cells. They help us metabolise our food and help our blood cells to from and flow. It helps our body produce collagen and absorb iron. It helps our body absorb calcium, needed to ensure strong bones and teeth. It fights free radicals – unbalanced molecules that can cause damage to our cells.It also contributes to the healthy condition of our skin. It helps our body make a number of proteins, one of which helps our blood to clot. They are organic substances found in plants, and animals.Most of them cant be made by our body,so they must be taken from our diet.Nutritionists have divided vitamins into two groups:Fat- soluble and water-soluble. The fat-soluble vitamins(A, D, E and K) are transported through the body by fat.They can also be stored in fat and liver cells for a limited period of time The water-soluble vitamins (B and C) are absorbed by and transported through our body in water.They need to be eaten every day, as they cant be stored for any length of time.
Its essential for healty bones and teeth. It contributes to healthy cells, bones and teeth. It helps our body use energy and our muscles function effectively. It helps our body regulate its water content and our nerves function effectively. It helps our cells and body fluids function properly. It helps in the formation of red blood cells; deficiency can lead to anaemia It helps the body reach sexual maturity and aids the repair of damaged tissues. It helps the body use iron properly. It ensures healthy celles. It helps make thyroid hormones, which control metabolic activity. Minerals have an important role to play in our good health.They are inorgainc substances,since they are found in the rocks and soil. Vegetables absorb mineral goodness as they grow, while animals digest it throught their diet.Like vitamins,minerals can also be divided into two groups: The Major minerals (Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium,Sodium,Potassium) and Trace minerals (Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Iodine)
To understand the latest insights into this disease, it helps to know a little more about two key molecules-glucose and insulin and the roles they play in the conditions doctors call Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.We'll start with glucose, the sugar molecule that is a major source of fuell for the body.You can get your glucose levels tested at a doctor's office or at home with a device called a glucometer.What you're looking for is a reading measured in milligramms of glucose per deciliter off blood. A anyone whose glucose level before breakfast- the fasting level - is 126 mg / dl, or higher is considered dibetic.A normal fasting level runs anywhere from mg / dl, to just under 110 mg /dl. Insulin is a hormone made be specialized cells in the pancreas, whose job is to push glucose out of the blood into various cells in the body. Whenevere the amount of glucose in the blood starts to rise, which happens just about whenever you eat, the pancreas pumps out more insulin to keep sugar levels stable.Here's where the difference between type1 and type 2 is clearest.Type 1 diabetics have high glucose levels becasuse their pancreas can no longer make insulin.
By definition, Type 1 diabetics musts eventually take insulin shots to get their diabetesunder control. Type 2 diabetics can still make their own insulin but their bodies don't respond as whell too it - a situation called insulin resistance.
Anorexia is an eating disorder in which sufferers becomes so afraid of gaining weight that they start to decrease the amount of food they will eat until they literally starve. Though most anorexics are female, there are males suffering from this disorder as well, and even when they are physically wasting away anorexics will perceive themselves as heavy and continue eating as little as possible. Without enough nourishment to sustain them, an anorexic's internal organs will begin to fail. Death can be, and sometimes is, the end result of anorexia. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which sufferers often consume far too much food in one sitting and then get rid of it either by vomiting or taking laxatives. This binging and purging becomes a cycle, though bulimics may never experience weight fluctuations obvious enough to make their disorders known. This constant binging and purging can damage the digestive tract, mouth, teeth and salivary glands, and may mean that the bulimic's diet rarely takes in enough vitamins and minerals to remain healthy.
For 99% of human history, people took their food from the world around them.They ate all that they could find, and then moved on. People learned to farm the land and control their environment. The kind of food we eat depends on which part of the world we live in, or which part of our country we live in. For example, in the south of China they eat rice, but in the north they eat noodles. In Scandinavia, they eat a lot of herrings, and the Portuguese love sardines. But in central Europe, away from the sea, people don't eat so much fish, they eat more meat and sausages. In Germany and Poland there are hundrends of different kinds of sausages. In North America, Australia, and Europe there are two or more courses to every meal and people eat with knives and forks. In China there is only one course, all the food is together on the table, and they eat with chopsticks. In parts of India and the Middle East people use their fingers and bread ti pick up the food. Nowadays it is possible to transport food easily from one part of the world to the other.We like, when we like, at any time of the year.Food is very big businnes.But people in poor countries are still hungry, and people in rich countries eat too much
In animals and in humans, there are broad ranges of potential uses for biotecnologies Animal biotechnology there are three distinct areas in which biotechnology will affect animal production: the use of new reproductive technology, new vaccines and bacterial and cell culture produced hormones.In animals, we have examples of developing animal testing models human genetic diseases use of animals for drug production and as a source of donor cells or organs. Industrial biotechnology Genetic mapulation offers many possibilities in micro- organisms with applications ranging from production (through industrial processes and agro-processing) of recombinat vaccines and medicines such as insulin, growth hormones and interferon, to enzyme and special proteins productions.Gene therapy is a new and experimantal treatment. Plant biotechnology With the moden biotechnology methodology it is possible to create new plant varieties that have improved characteristisc, for example higler yields, tolerance to stress conditions, resistance to specific herbicides and disease.The potential range of new varieties is immense and problems of diease and weed control are beginning to be solved genetically rather than with chemicals.