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Keith D. Bishop Clinical Nutritionist B.Sc. Pharmacy.

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Presentation on theme: "Keith D. Bishop Clinical Nutritionist B.Sc. Pharmacy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Keith D. Bishop Clinical Nutritionist B.Sc. Pharmacy

2 The following research summary and seminar is for information and education use only. The information and commentary provided are not intended to replace your doctors care. You should consult with your health care provider before making changes in your prescription, cancer treatment, diet, lifestyle and supplement program. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 2

3 Breast Cancer Diet and Lifestyle Seminar Im providing a summary of recent research on the effects diet and lifestyle has on breast cancer This research information will enlighten and empower you in your quest for a healthier life. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 3

4 Breast Cancer Diet and Lifestyle Seminar You will have the basic tools to maximize your bodys ability to prevent and fight breast cancer, all other cancers and most other causes of early death. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 4

5 Breast Cancer Oklahoma The breast cancer death rate in Oklahoma exceeds that of the United States. J Okla State Med Assoc Jan;101(1):15-9 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 5

6 Breast Cancer Risks Breast cancer does not have a single cause. Breast cancer does have some risk factors including age, race and family history or genetics. Breast cancer grows up to 8 years before being diagnosed. Intelligent Patient Guide to Breast Cancer by Ivo Olivotto, MD, Karen Gelmon, MD, Urve Kuusk, MD, Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 6

7 Breast Cancer: Risks Research shows many modifiable factors in our environment, diet and lifestyle influence the prevention, development, growth and death of breast cancer cells. Our body has natural mechanisms that can assist or hinder the ability to fight cancers. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 7

8 Breast Cancer Risks Eating a nutritious diet, being physically active, and keeping body fat under control may prevent: 38% of Breast Cancers 45% of Colorectal Cancers 70% of Endometrial Cancers The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 8

9 Breast Cancer Diet - Calories Energy intake >2,057 calories per day was significantly and positively related to breast cancer risk. Breast J Sep-Oct;15 Suppl 1:S63-71 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 9

10 Breast Cancer Diet - Coffee Women who drank more than eight cups of coffee per day had an increased risk of breast cancer. Breast J Sep-Oct;15 Suppl 1:S63-71 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 10

11 Breast Cancer Tea (new slide) Increased green tea consumption (more than three cups a day) decreased breast cancer recurrence by 73% Increased green tea consumption decreased breast cancer risk by 81% Breast Cancer Res Treat May 13. In women <50 years of age, consuming three or more cups per day had a 37% reduced breast cancer risk when compared with women reporting no tea consumption. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Jan;18(1): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 11

12 Breast Cancer Diet - Alcohol Subjects who drank >9 gm of alcohol (ethanol) per day had an increased risk of breast cancer 1 jigger (1.5 oz) = 14 gm alcohol A positive and significant association was noted between the consumption of beer, wine and spirits, and breast cancer risk. Breast J Sep-Oct;15 Suppl 1:S63-71 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 12

13 Breast Cancer Diet - Alcohol Alcohol was significantly positively associated with total breast cancer: Even a moderate amount of alcohol (>10 gm/day) significantly increased breast cancer risk Moderate consumption of alcohol was associated with hormone receptor-positive tumors. Am J Epidemiol Aug 1;170(3): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 13

14 Breast Cancer Diet – Western Western Diet (essentially meat products, French fries, appetizers, rice/pasta, potatoes, pulses, pizza/pies, canned fish, eggs, alcoholic beverages, cakes, mayonnaise, and butter/cream) increased breast cancer risk by 20% Am J Epidemiol Oct 14. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 14

15 Breast Cancer Diet – Mediterranean Mediterranean Diet (essentially vegetables, fruits, seafood, olive oil, and sunflower oil) decreased breast cancer risk by 15%. Am J Epidemiol Oct 14. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 15

16 Breast Cancer Diet – Black Womens Study Western (refined grains, processed meat, and sweets) Prudent (whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and fish) Compared to Western diet the Prudent dietary pattern decreased cancer risk by 30% in premenopausal women Page 1 of 2 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 16

17 Breast Cancer Diet – Black Womens Study Prudent dietary pattern was associated with a 36% lower risk of breast cancer in women with a BMI <25 Prudent dietary pattern reduced estrogen receptor- negative (ER-) breast cancer risk by 48%. Am J Clin Nutr Sep;90(3): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 17

18 Breast Cancer Diet – Fruits and Vegetables Consumption of individual vegetable and fruit groups such as dark green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, carrots and tomatoes, banana, watermelon/papaya/cantaloupe were all inversely and significantly related with breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer Jul 1;125(1): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 18

19 Breast Cancer Diet – Fruits and Vegetables Higher intake of fruits and vegetables combined was associated with a significant decreased in the risk of breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Jul-Sep;10(3): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 19

20 Breast Cancer Diet – Fruits and Vegetables A diet high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat decreased additional risk of secondary breast cancer events in women without hot flashes (diet of 5 servings of vegetables and fruit daily) Am J Clin Nutr May;89(5):1565S-1571S. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 20

21 Breast Cancer Meat High intake of red meat, total meat and processed meat increased the risk of breast cancer Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Jul-Sep;10(3): A meta-analysis shows an association between breast cancer risk and red meat consumption in premenopausal women Breast Cancer Res Treat Sep;117(1):1-8. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 21

22 Breast Cancer Meat Breast cancer risk increased by 56% for each additional 100 gm/day of meat consumption 6 oz steak = 170 gm Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 22

23 Breast Cancer Red Meat Positively associated with breast cancer: Red meat Heterocyclic amines (well cooked, grilled or burnt meat) Iron Br J Cancer Jul 7;101(1): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 23

24 Breast Cancer Red Meat – Fried Meat Red meat did not increase breast cancer risk Fried meat intake increased the risk of ER+/PR- breast cancer Eur J Cancer May 20. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 24

25 Breast Cancer Omega-3 High consumption of omega-3 from fatty fish is associated with a reduced risk for breast cancer 19% lower risk in premenopausal women 27% lower risk in postmenopausal women Page 1 of 3 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 25

26 Breast Cancer Omega-3 Postmenopausal Consuming 101 mg of EPA daily decreased breast cancer risk by 38% Consuming 213 mg of DHA daily decreased breast cancer risk by 32% Page 2 of 3 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 26

27 Breast Cancer Omega-3 Premenopausal Highest amount of omega-3 decreased breast cancer risk by 46% Page 3 of 3 BMC Cancer Jun 30;9:216. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 27

28 Breast Cancer Omega 6 Fatty Acids Cause inflammation and pain (via COX-2) Linoleic acid Corn oil Safflower oil Sunflower oil Arachidonic acid Animal Fat Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 28

29 Breast Cancer Omega 6 Fatty Acids A significant increased breast cancer risk was observed among those with high intakes of omega-6 PUFAs from meat Int J Cancer Oct 1;123(7): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 29

30 Breast Cancer Omega 6 Fatty Acids High consumption of processed meat, fish, butter and other animal fats, and margarine increased to risk of breast cancer by 2 fold Br J Nutr Nov;100(5):942-6 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 30

31 Breast Cancer Omega 3 and Omega 6 – COX-2 Omega-6 fatty acids and their derivatives promote the production of proinflammatory eicosanoids (COX-2), whereas omega-3 fatty acids suppress this action. Drug News Perspect Nov;21(9): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 31

32 Breast Cancer Omega 3 and Omega 6 – COX-2 Apricoxib (CS-706), a small-molecule, orally active, selective COX-2 inhibitor, is under development by Tragara Pharmaceuticals Inc as an analgesic and anti- inflammatory agent, and also for its anticancer potential. IDrugs Nov;12(11): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 32

33 Breast Cancer: Flaxseed 25 gm of Flaxseed in a daily muffin Reduced Ki-67 index by 34.2% HER2 expression by 71% Increased apoptosis by 30.7% Compared to placebo group Clin Cancer Res May 15;11(10): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 33

34 Breast Cancer Omega-9 Fatty Acids Oleic acid in olive oil (monounsaturated fatty acid) decreases the risk of breast cancer. World J Surg Oncol Jul 18;3:45 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 34

35 Breast Cancer Omega-9 Fatty Acids Olive oil Avocado Peanuts Almonds Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 35

36 Breast Cancer Trans Fatty Acids A high serum level of trans-fatty acids, presumably reflecting a high intake of industrially processed foods, is probably one factor contributing to increased risk of invasive breast cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol Jun 1;167(11): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 36

37 Breast Cancer Oxidative Damage In all stages, MDA (malondialdehyde) levels in breast cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects J Cancer Res Clin Oncol Aug;135(8): Fruits and vegetables provide antioxidants and lower MDA. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 37

38 Breast Cancer MDA Low plasma vitamin A increased risk of breast cancer by approximately two fold Low plasma vitamin E increased the risk by two to three fold A high level of MDA was associated with breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Apr-Jun;9(2): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 38

39 Breast Cancer Copper Consistently, high levels of copper have been found in many types of human cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, and lung. Recent studies suggest that copper (removal) could be used as a novel selective target for cancer therapies. Cancer Res Feb 15;67(4): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 39

40 Breast Cancer Copper The copper levels in serum of healthy volunteers were lower than in cancer patients Biometals Apr;22(2): Copper is a co-factor essential for tumor angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels) processes and high levels of copper have been found in many types of human cancers, including prostate, breast and brain. Front Biosci Sep 1;10: Heavy Metal Test at Heavy Metal Test at Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 40

41 Breast Cancer Glucose Metabolic syndrome is significantly more prevalent in triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-) breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat Oct 23 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 41

42 Breast Cancer Glucose Hyperinsulinemia most likely favors cancer in diabetic patients as insulin is a growth factor with preeminent metabolic but also mitogenic effects and its action in malignant cells is favored by mechanisms acting both at the receptor and post-receptor level. Endocr Relat Cancer Jul 20. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 42

43 Breast Cancer Glucose Higher insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels are associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk Endocr Relat Cancer Sep 28. High insulin levels increased the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer by 46% J Natl Cancer Inst Jan 7;101(1):48-60 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 43

44 Breast Cancer Cholesterol & Glucose Dietary Energy Restriction (DER): Reduced expressions of growth genes in the lipid metabolism and glycolytic (glucose) pathways in breast tissue Lowered serum biomarkers of breast cancer risk (insulin, leptin, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa) Aug;2(8): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 44

45 Breast Cancer Soy A diet rich in isoflavones from soy products reduces the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in Japanese American and White women Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa) Oct;2(10): Genistein could be useful as a chemotherapeutic agent in premenopausal women with breast cancer of the ERalpha-negative and ERbeta-positive type Decreased estradiol stimulated cancer growth. Pharmacology. 2009;84(2): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 45

46 Breast Cancer Soy A recent nested case-control study and meta- analysis of numerous epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between genistein intake and breast cancer risk Clinical studies in osteopenic and osteoporotic, postmenopausal women support the breast and uterine safety of purified naturally derived genistein administered for up to 3 years. Nutr Rev Jul;67(7): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 46

47 Breast Cancer Dairy Skim milk, but not other dairy foods, was associated with increased risk of advanced prostate cancer. In contrast, calcium from nondairy foods was associated with lower risk of non-advanced prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol Dec 1;166(11): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 47

48 Breast Cancer Sunshine and Vitamin D Sun exposure rate seemed to be positively correlated with a lower risk of overall morality due to organ cancer The health benefits of sunlight appear to outweigh the risk of skin cancer The vitamin D hormone system is necessary for cell proliferation and differentiation. Anticancer Res Jul-Aug;26(4A): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 48

49 Breast Cancer Vitamin D In the meta-analysis of 11 research studies, there was a significant inverse relationship between vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk The highest vitamin D intake reduced breast cancer risk by 91% The highest 25 Hydroxyvitamin D3 level reduced breast cancer by 45% Breast Cancer Res Treat Oct 23. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 49

50 Breast Cancer Vitamin D Women with breast cancer had lower plasma 25OHD levels than controls. Highest levels of 25OD levels reduces breast cancer risk by 52% Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Oct;18(10): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 50

51 Breast Cancer Vitamin D Vitamin D3 Blood Test 25 Hydroxyvitamin D3 Normal level 32 – 100 ng/ml Optimal level 50 – 70 ng/ml Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 51

52 Breast Cancer Exercise Two large studies have reported that exercise decreased breast cancer mortality Estrogen pathway and the insulin pathway are two potential mechanisms Breast Cancer Res Sep 1;11(5):106. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 52

53 Breast Cancer Exercise >7 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity during the past 10 years was associated with 16% reduced risk of postmenopausal breast compared with inactivity. BMC Cancer Oct 1;9(1):349. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 53

54 Breast Cancer Bra In premenopausal women, sleeping without bra decreased the risk of breast cancer Sleeping without a bra did not decrease breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao Jul;29(7): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 54

55 Breast Cancer Bra Premenopausal women who do not wear bras had half the risk of breast cancer compared with bra users Possibly because they are thinner and likely to have smaller breasts. Eur J Cancer. 1991;27(2):131-5 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 55

56 Breast Cancer Antiperspirants / Deodorants Antiperspirants had no association with the risk of breast cancer. East Mediterr Health J May-Jul;12(3-4): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 56

57 Breast Cancer Antiperspirants / Deodorants Frequency and earlier onset of antiperspirant/deodorant usage with underarm shaving were associated with an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis. Eur J Cancer Prev Dec;12(6): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 57

58 Breast Cancer Antiperspirants / Deodorants Breast cancer did not increase with antiperspirant, deodorant, product use among subjects who shaved with a blade razor, or application of antiperspirant or deodorant products within 1 hour of shaving. J Natl Cancer Inst Oct 16;94(20): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 58

59 Breast Cancer Sleep Nighttime shift work increases risk Blindness lowers risk Long sleep duration lowers risk Community nighttime light level increases risk Mutat Res Sep-Oct;679(1-2):6-8. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 59

60 Breast Cancer Sleep Blind women with No Perception of Light appear to have a lower risk of breast cancer, compared to blind women with Light Perception. Cancer Causes Control Aug 1 Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 60

61 Breast Cancer Sleep Women shift workers report poor sleep quality and experience reproductive disturbances, an increased risk of breast cancer, and a greater risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. J Womens Health (Larchmt) Jul 6. Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 61

62 Breast Cancer Sleep Sleep disturbances can lead to immune suppression and a shift to the predominance in cancer-stimulatory cytokines. Sleep Med Rev Aug;13(4): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 62

63 Breast Cancer Stress Social stress is not associated with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat Jul 2. It cannot be confidently concluded that life events, personality features or depression play a role in the onset of cancer. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique Apr;57(2): Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 63

64 Breast Cancer Free Seminar on-line at Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 64

65 Natural Care Solution – Health Nut Rx Collonade Center 9612 N. May Avenue, OKC, OK Copyright 2009 Keith D. Bishop, Clinical Nutritionist, B.Sc. Pharmacy 65


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