Presentation on theme: "Food Science: An Old but New Subject Chapter One Part Two History of Food Science."— Presentation transcript:
Food Science: An Old but New Subject Chapter One Part Two History of Food Science
Early Food Discoveries Industrial Revolution Government Regulation 4 2 1 Three Periods in the Development of Food
Early Food Discoveries There was a time when people ate foods that were naturally grown in the area where they lived. Early food discoveries allowed people to identify foods that were tasty and safe to eat. Men often hunted and fished for the meat portion of the diet. Women and children foraged for fruits and nuts.
Industrial Revolution Mid 1700s to Mid 1800s, also known as the Industrial Revolution, was a time of change. Great strides were made in scientific knowledge, answering the Why of things and the economy boomed, much due to the development of power-driven machines, the steam engine. The industrial revolution led to increases in food production and the development of new food products.
Early Government Regulation of the Food Industry Government regulation helped eliminate misnamed and adulterated foods; increased food safety, and required informative, accurate labeling.
What is Adulteration? Adulteration is a lowering of the quality and safety of a product by adding inferior or toxic ingredients. Adulterated food products often include cheaper ingredients, which can increase product supply and save food producers money. Adulterated food products create health risks for consumers because these counterfeit (fake) ingredients may be toxic, have a lower nutritional value than ingredients they have replaced, or cause allergic reactions.
Milestones in Government Food Regulation MilestoneActions Generated Pure Food and Drug ActProhibits interstate commerce of misbranded adulterated food, drinks, and drugs. Meat Inspection ActRequires inspection of all meat sold across state lines. 1 st Certified Color Regulations Certifies seven colors as acceptable for use in processed foods and drugs. Gould AmendmentRequires accurate labeling of food packages with weight, measure, or numerical count.
MilestoneActions Generated Food, Drug, and Cosmetic ActExpands the 1906 Food and Drug Act to cover cosmetics. Delaney ClauseProhibits the use of any additive in food that is found to cause cancer. Fair Packaging and Labeling Act Requires all consumer products in interstate commerce to be honestly and informatively labeled. Milestones in Government Food Regulation continued:
MilestoneActions Generated Saccharin Study and Labeling Act Stops FDA from banning a chemical sweetener but requires a warning label on food products containing it. Food and Drug Administration Act Broadly spells out the responsibilities of the Secretary and the Commissioner of the FDA for research, enforcement, education, and information. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act Defines dietary supplements and places the burden of proof for safety on FDA. Milestones in Government Food Regulation continued:
What are Watchdog Groups: Watchdog groups are organizations that observe and report scientific developments, policy, and legislation related to the food industry. These groups can be nonpartisan (they do not have an agenda or goal other than unbiased communication. Others have agendas that are political in nature.
Two Nonpartisan Watchdog Groups International Food Information Council (IFIC) Founded in 1985 Nonprofit organization whose mission is to provide information to professionals who communicate with consumers regarding science-based information on agricultural industries. American Dietetic Association Professional association of nutritionists and nutrition research scientists who report summaries of current research on food related topics.
Food Labeling The U.S. Congress has established guidelines that all food manufacturing must follow to market their products. These guidelines are intended to help protect consumers from food fraud and mislabeling and to help keep consumers informed about the nutritional content of food products.
Food Scientists are required to analyze and properly label food products. To develop a label that meets federal regulations, a food scientist must: -Understand the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) regulations regarding manufactured foods and their labels -Carefully analyze all ingredients in a food item by nutrient category -Accurately calculate ingredients and nutrients -Keep thorough records that support labeling information