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GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS BY: DENKENESH DOBBINS PHARMD CANDIDATE.

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Presentation on theme: "GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS BY: DENKENESH DOBBINS PHARMD CANDIDATE."— Presentation transcript:

1 GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS BY: DENKENESH DOBBINS PHARMD CANDIDATE

2 PREVALENCE Prevalence: 60 to 70 million people are affected by digestive diseases Ambulatory care visits: million Hospitalizations: 13.5 million Mortality: 236,000 deaths

3 EPIDEMIOLOGY Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Chronic constipation Irritable Bowel Syndrome Hernia Hemorrhoids Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohns Disease) Ulcerative Colitis Peptic Ulcer Disease Viral Hepatitis Pancreatitis

4 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY tube 25 to 32 feet in length oral cavity pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine rectum anus. Organs that assist the function of the system liver, pancreas, appendix Gallbladder

5 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY POOR DIET AND NUTRITION UNDERLYING CAUSES of GI disturbance include microbes toxins physical damage to tissues infections, inadequate or excessive levels of digestive acids (HCI) and enzymes, stress, poor levels of helpful bacteria, and poorly functioning liver, pancreas or gallbladder IMMUNE INCOMPETENCE OR DYSFUNCTION

6 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Stomach pain Flatulence (gas) Bloated or swollen abdomen Diarrhea, constipation or a combination of both Whitish mucus in the stool Unexplained weight loss Persistent, low-grade fever Blood in the stool Having a bowel movement that is black, tarry and foul smelling

7 DIAGNOSIS Stool culture. Ultrasound Colonoscopy Esophagogastroduode noscopy

8 NON PHARMALOGICAL THERAPY EXERCISE RELAXATION TECHNIQUES HEALTHY DIET HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS GINGER ALOE VERA WATER LICORICE

9 PHARMALOGICAL TREATMENT PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS DRUGMOAADVERSE EFFECTS MONITORIN G PAREMETER Omeprazole (Prilosec) irreversibly block the the gastric proton pump of the gastric parietal cells. The proton pump is the terminal stage in gastric acid secretion Headache Diarrhea Constipation Abdominal pain Nausea Rash Vitamin B12 levels Ansoprazole (Prevacid) Rabeprazole (Aciphex Pantoprazole (Protonix Esomeprazole (Nexium

10 PHARMALOGICAL TREATMENT H ISTAMINE H2- RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS DRUGMOAADVERSE EFFECT MONITORING PARAMETERS Cimetidine (Tagamet) Suppress the normal secretion of acid by parietal cells and the meal- stimulated secretion of acid Abnormal heartbeat Confusion Diarrhea Difficulty breathing Dilated pupils Drowsiness Flushing Low blood pressure Nausea Blood pressure: may cause hypotension Ranitidine (Zantac) Famotidine (Pepcid) Nizatidine (Axid)

11 SPECIAL POPULATIONS Pregnancy antacids sucralfate ranitidine metoclopramide

12 PHARMACIST ROLE Educate patients drug use Counsel patients on proper drug administration and possible side effects Check for drug interactions Counsel patient on importance of compliance

13 CLINICAL PEARLS Avoid eating spicy foods, highly acidic and fatty foods Avoid drinking alcohol Take medication 30 minutes prior to meal

14 WORK CITED National Digestive Diseases InformationClearinghousehttp://digestive.niddk.n ih.gov/statistics/statistics.aspx. September 2013 Natural Horizons Wellness Centers trointestinal-disorders/ September2013. Histamine H2 Antagonist (Oral Route, Injection Route, Intravenous Route. information/DR September2013


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