4 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY tube 25 to 32 feet in length oral cavity pharynx esophagusstomachsmall intestinelarge intestinerectumanus.Organs that assist the function of the systemliver,pancreas,appendixGallbladderproduce and excrete digestive enzymes and acids.
5 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY POOR DIET AND NUTRITION UNDERLYING CAUSES of GI disturbance includemicrobestoxinsphysical damage to tissuesinfections, inadequate or excessive levels of digestive acids (HCI) and enzymes,stress,poor levels of helpful bacteria, andpoorly functioning liver, pancreas or gallbladderIMMUNE INCOMPETENCE OR DYSFUNCTION1. heavy in meat, starch, processed foods, preservatives, chemicals and other unhealthy additives. Diets should be altered to include more fiber, enzymes including digestive enzymes, appropriate oils like essential fatty acids and complex carbohydrates
6 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Unexplained weight loss Persistent, low-grade fever Blood in the stoolHaving a bowel movement that is black, tarry and foul smellingStomach painFlatulence (gas)Bloated or swollen abdomenDiarrhea, constipation or a combination of bothWhitish mucus in the stool
8 NON PHARMALOGICAL THERAPY EXERCISERELAXATION TECHNIQUESHEALTHY DIETHERBAL SUPPLEMENTSGINGERALOE VERA WATERLICORICE
9 PHARMALOGICAL TREATMENT proton pump inhibitors DRUGMOAADVERSE EFFECTSMONITORING PAREMETEROmeprazole(Prilosec)irreversibly block the the gastric proton pump of the gastric parietal cells. The proton pump is the terminal stage in gastric acid secretionHeadacheDiarrheaConstipationAbdominal painNauseaRashVitamin B12 levelsAnsoprazole(Prevacid)Rabeprazole(AciphexPantoprazole(ProtonixEsomeprazole(Nexium
10 PHARMALOGICAL TREATMENT Histamine H2-receptor antagonists DRUGMOAADVERSE EFFECTMONITORING PARAMETERSCimetidine (Tagamet)Suppress the normal secretion of acid by parietal cells and the meal-stimulated secretion of acidAbnormal heartbeatConfusionDiarrheaDifficulty breathingDilated pupilsDrowsinessFlushingLow blood pressureNauseaBlood pressure: may cause hypotensionRanitidine (Zantac)Famotidine (Pepcid)Nizatidine (Axid)
11 SPECIAL POPULATIONS Pregnancy antacids sucralfate ranitidine metoclopramide
12 PHARMACIST ROLE Educate patients drug use Counsel patients on proper drug administration and possible side effectsCheck for drug interactionsCounsel patient on importance of compliance
13 CLINICAL PEARLSAvoid eating spicy foods, highly acidic and fatty foodsAvoid drinking alcoholTake medication 30 minutes prior to meal
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