Presentation on theme: "Body Works Digestion and Respiration D. Patterson."— Presentation transcript:
Body Works Digestion and Respiration D. Patterson
Lesson 1 Outcome 1: Describe the interaction between food, energy and the 7 life processes.
Intro Watch OgJGG0 OgJGG0
Tasks Read the background information from activity 1. Use this knowledge, your previous knowledge and the internet to answer questions 1-7
Activity 2 What does a food chain show? What does a food web show?
The sun and decomposers
Tasks From Activity 2, complete questions 1 and 2
Journal and Push Yourself Outcome 1: Describe the interaction between food, energy and the 7 life processes What is meant by respiration is an exothermic reaction?
Lesson 2 Outcome 2: List the 7 main food groups and include the sources and function of each.
Task Look at the picture on the next slide and answer the following: What is the purpose of the picture? What does it tell you?
Task Research the food group from activity 3 that matches your number. (15 min) Consolidate your findings with other members of the class with the same food group as you (5 min) Be prepared to present your findings to the class
Journal and Push Yourself Outcome 2: List the 7 main food groups and include the sources and function of each. Is there such a thing as too many vitamins and minerals? What can this cause? Homework: Record what you eat and how much you eat over a 24 hour period
Lesson 3 Outcome 3: Define what RDI means and explain which foods help to keep within the RDI
Energy in food The energy obtained from food is measured in kilojoules or calories. Fat, carbohydrate and protein are the main sources of this energy o 1 gram of carbohydrate supplies 16 kJ of energy o 1 gram of protein supplies 17 kJ of energy o 1 gram of fat supplies 37 kJ of energy Why is it recommended to eat carbohydrates for energy when fats have a higher energy content per gram?
Using energy A 55kg person will use about 15kJ walking and 40 kJ of energy running for 1 hour 1 weet bix has
Task Use calorieking.com to determine the amount of energy you get from your diet in a 24 hour period Answer the following questions: 1.Which food types had the most calories/kJ and which had the least? 2.What does RDI stand for? 3.What is your RDI and how does this change as you get older?
Fad Diets Often popularised by the media, fad diets are eating plans with the goal of short term weight loss, without the concern of long term weight loss.
Task Create a fishbone visual organiser that gives an overview of unhealthy eating due to fad diets EFFECT: Unhealthy Eating
Journal and Push Yourself Outcome 3: Define what RDI means and explain which foods help to keep within the RDI How many vitamins and nutrients do you need in a healthy diet?
Lesson 4 Outcome 4: Describe the modes of nutrition for plants and animals
Where do plants and animals get their energy?
Not always Sf0LmY&list=TL-EdSShWJiVkhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7eQK Sf0LmY&list=TL-EdSShWJiVk
Notes Plants are usually autotrophic –auto means self –trophic means to nourish But plants may also be saprophytic, parasitic, symbiotic or insectivorous
Task Research each of the modes of nutrition to find a description and an example: –Saprophytic –Parasitic –Symbiotic –Insectivorous
Task Read through the passage in activity 5. Answer questions at the end
Task Make a poster which shows one of the modes of nutrition covered today. Make sure it shows: –Title –Diagram showing species involved in mode of nutrition –Description of the mode of nutrition
Journal and Push Yourself Outcome 4: Describe the modes of nutrition for plants and animals
Lesson 5 Outcome 5: Describe the key stages of the digestive cycle including labelling the relevant organs
Task Digestion is the bodys mechanism of breaking down food to absorb into the blood stream 1 minute paper. Prepare yourselves to answer the question in only 1 minute! Question: What parts of the human body are used for digesting food?
Biodigital Human Show biodigital human digestive system.
Task Take a copy of the Construct-a-gut worksheet. Cut and paste the correct arrangement of the organs of the digestive system. Label the organs
Task Research the function of each organ in the digestive cycle Mouth, gall bladder, oesophagus, stomach, liver, small intestine, appendix, large intestine, salivary glands, rectum, pancreas, anus –Does it assist with mechanical or chemical digestion? What do these terms mean? –What is the order that food passes through the alimentary canal? Does it pass through all the organs of the digestive system?
Stages of digestion Stage 1: The mouth –Mechanical breakdown of food occurs through chewing –Chemical breakdown of food occurs through enzymes found in saliva Stage 2: The stomach –Hydochloric acid is used for further chemical breakdown of food into a liquified substance
Stages of digestion Stage 3: The small intestines –Enzymes continue to chemically break down molecules of food. Enzymes come from the liver and pancreas –Nutrients get absorbed into the blood stream by finger like villi on the walls of the intestine. All of these villi increase the surface area to help absorption Stage 4: The large intestines –Water gets reabsorbed which solidifies the remaining undigested food
Stages of digestion Stage 5: The rectum and anus –Faeces pass through the final stage of the large intestines, and out through the anus. This is the waste product of digestion.
Task Complete questions from Activity 10 (you may skip question 1 if you have already labelled the digestive system)
Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 5: Describe the key stages of the digestive cycle including labelling the relevant organs How small are the small intestines, how large are the large intestines?
Lesson 6 part 1 Outcome 6: What is the role of enzymes and what conditions are required to make them work?
Enzymes - print out questions Questions: What is in the stomach that makes it a cozy place to work in for the enzymes? What are enzymes? What are the common characteristics of enzymes? Enzymes only act on ____________ of molecule https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XTUm-75-PL4
Lock and Key model
Task Answer questions from activity 12 Answers appeared in the video or may be found in the information in activity 12
Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 6: What is the role of enzymes and what conditions are required to make them work? What are some other types of enzymes, what do they break down and where are they produced?
Lesson 6 part 2 Outcome 6: What is the role of enzymes and what conditions are required to make them work?
Teacher notes This experiment takes the whole lesson. Prepare as much as possible before lesson, get students working on setting up equipment and then talk about hypothesis/ results etc while waiting for outcome
Aim What are the optimum conditions for enzymes, like rennin, to work?
Set up your experiment Make up each of the experiments found in activity 13 Make up one more with a few drops of HCl in.
Testing for optimum conditions for enzymes Experiment 1: How does temperature affect rennin? Test Tube A Boiled Rennin Test Tube B Cold Conditions Test Tube D Warm Conditions
Testing for optimum conditions for enzymes Experiment 2: How does acidity affect rennin? Test Tube C High pH Test Tube D Unchanged pH Test Tube E Low pH This one is not in your book
While you wait Write hypothesis Fill in diagram of experiment Once experiment is completed: –Complete table of results –Answer questions at end of results
Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 6: What is the role of enzymes and what conditions are required to make them work? What other enzymes are in the body, what do they break down and where are they produced?
Lesson 7 Outcome 7: Define decomposition and preservation of food and describe methods of preserving food TEST Qs: What are two methods that were successful in preventing meat from going bad? Many food preservation methods work because they upset the operation of the enzymes in bacteria that cause food to go rotten. Select one of the methods in and explain how it stops the enzymes in the bacteria from operating.
Watch Watch video _BVbGc _BVbGc What do the terms decomposition and preservation mean to you?
Food Decomposition and Preservation Decomposition – the decomposition of food refers to saprophytes (bacteria and fungi) feeding on food, often making it unhealthy for eating. Preservation – the preservation of food refers to techniques that can help to slow the decomposition process.
How do we preserve fruits, vegetables, meats and other foods?
Task 1 minute challenge! Write down as many methods of preserving foods as you can think of. When instructed, share your answers with students on your table
Task Activity 6: Decomposition and preservation of food Set up title, aim and results table Be sure to label your test tubes with group name and test tube number
Task Research the required conditions for saprophytes to live and grow Based on this knowledge, which test tubes do you think will be effective at preserving the meat and why?
Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 7: Define decomposition and preservation of food and describe methods of preserving food Not all saprophytes are bad. In fact some save lives. What saprophytes do this?
Lesson 8 Outcome 8: Explain how diffusion and semi permeable membranes relate to the small intestines Iodine turns a blue colour in the presence of starch. Some iodine solution was sealed in a semi – permeable membrane and the membrane containing iodine was placed in a container of starch. After a few minutes the iodine in the membrane was yellow and unchanged in appearance but the starch solution had turned blue.Explain these observations:
Demonstration HCl on cotton wool NH 4 OH on cotton wool WHILE WE WAIT….
Why do smells spread throughout a room?
Notes Diffusion occurs when particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
Task Activity 8 – Semi-permeable membranes Disect a dry sultana, a sultana soaked in water and a sultana soaked in honey –Write down your observations of the difference between each sultana. –What chemical has caused this difference?
Sultana skin Inside sultanaOutside Sultana Sugar Molecule Water Molecule
Notes A semi permeable membrane allows small particles through but not big ones. This is like a sieve straining water from food when cooking
Discussion What does diffusion and semi permeable membranes have to do with the small intestines?
The small intestines The small intestine wall is covered in villi which act as the semi permeable membrane to allow digested food to flow into the blood stream by diffusion
Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 8: Explain how diffusion and semi permeable membranes relate to the small intestines What causes food to move through the small intestines into the large intestines?
Lesson 9 Part 1 Final check of meat experiment Outcome 9: Label and describe the role of the organs of the respiration system Test Question: Label the parts of the respiratory system shown below: diaphragm, right lung, trachea, larynx, bronchiole, left bronchus, alveoli. Smoking damages the cilia in the respiratory system. Why would this cause the smokers respiratory system to become congested? Cilia move mucous containing dust/bacteria upwards to be swallowed or expelled. When cilia are damaged this results in this material collecting in the passages causing congestion.
Task Write final observation of meat samples. Rank your meat samples in order from most preserved to least preserved.
Task Left side of room sits still. Middle of room walks on the spot Right side of room jogs on the spot Hold your breath!
Task Worksheet: Respiration System Read through and complete the worksheet questions Try reading the questions through once first, then highlight important information as you read.
Lesson 9 Part 2 Outcome 9: Label and describe the role of the organs of the respiration system Test Question: Label the parts of the respiratory system shown below: diaphragm, right lung, trachea, larynx, bronchiole, left bronchus, alveoli. Smoking damages the cilia in the respiratory system. Why would this cause the smokers respiratory system to become congested? Cilia move mucous containing dust/bacteria upwards to be swallowed or expelled. When cilia are damaged this results in this material collecting in the passages causing congestion.
Watch and take notes Biodigital Human Fill in parts of respiration system on the Respiration worksheet from previous lesson
Watch and take notes Dissection of sheep lung and discussion of parts/functions
Task Pick up a small piece of lung from the front and view the sample under a microscope. Describe the appearance. USE GOOD HYGEINE! If you placed a sample of lung and a sample of liver in a beaker of water, which would float and which would sink? Why?
Task Worksheet from Activity 14
Lesson 9 Part 3 Outcome 9: Label and describe the role of the organs of the respiration system Test Question: Label the parts of the respiratory system shown below: diaphragm, right lung, trachea, larynx, bronchiole, left bronchus, alveoli. Smoking damages the cilia in the respiratory system. Why would this cause the smokers respiratory system to become congested? Cilia move mucous containing dust/bacteria upwards to be swallowed or expelled. When cilia are damaged this results in this material collecting in the passages causing congestion.
Task Find the purpose of: 1.Trachea 2.Mucus in the trachea 3.Cilia in the trachea 4.Larynx 5.Bronchi 6.Alveoli covered in blood capillaries
Task Watch Video on ClickView Transportation systems in animals Complete question sheet
Lesson 10 Outcome 10: Describe how humans get air into and out of the lungs
Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 9: Label and describe the role of the organs of the respiration system
The Mechanics of Breathing Place your hands at different points around (and under) your rib cage. Breathe in and out slowly. What do you observe?
Model Apparatus Draw a diagram of the model with empty balloons Questions 1) Draw another diagram showing what must change for air to fill the balloons. 2) Write a paragraph describing what happens to air pressure and the volume of air as the rubber sheet is pulled
Video..\Resources\Breathing mechanism.mp4 Set up a table with the headings: similarities and differences Think, pair, share: How is the balloon apparatus similar to the respiration system? How is it different?
Flow Chart Start with a simple diagram of the respiration system. Rearrange the steps below and then draw a series of diagrams which shows how we inhale then exhale. –Rib muscles contract to lift ribcage –Diaphragm relaxes upwards –Diaphragm contracts downwards –Air forced in (inspiration/ inhalation) –Less volume/ More pressure –More volume/ Less pressure –Rib muscles relax, rib cage drops –Air forced out (expiration/ exhalation)
Inhalation –Diaphragm contracts downwards –Rib muscles contract to lift ribcage –More volume/ Less pressure –Air forced in (inspiration/ inhalation) Air in
Exhalation –Diaphragm relaxes upwards –Rib muscles relax, rib cage drops –Less volume/ More pressure –Air forced out (expiration/exhalation) Air out
Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 10: Describe how humans get air into and out of the lungs The Aboriginal didgeridoo requires a technique called circular breathing. How is this achieved?
Lesson 11 Outcome 11: Describe modern issues regarding ozone