13TaskResearch the food group from activity 3 that matches your number. (15 min)Consolidate your findings with other members of the class with the same food group as you (5 min)Be prepared to present your findings to the class
14Journal and Push Yourself Outcome 2: List the 7 main food groups and include the sources and function of each.Is there such a thing as too many vitamins and minerals? What can this cause?Homework: Record what you eat and how much you eat over a 24 hour period
15Lesson 3Outcome 3: Define what RDI means and explain which foods help to keep within the RDI
16Energy in foodThe energy obtained from food is measured in kilojoules or calories.Fat, carbohydrate and protein are the main sources of this energy1 gram of carbohydrate supplies 16 kJ of energy1 gram of protein supplies 17 kJ of energy1 gram of fat supplies 37 kJ of energyWhy is it recommended to eat carbohydrates for energy when fats have a higher energy content per gram?
17Using energyA 55kg person will use about 15kJ walking and 40 kJ of energy running for 1 hour1 weet bix has
18TaskUse calorieking.com to determine the amount of energy you get from your diet in a 24 hour periodAnswer the following questions:Which food types had the most calories/kJ and which had the least?What does RDI stand for?What is your RDI and how does this change as you get older?
19“Fad” DietsOften popularised by the media, fad diets are eating plans with the goal of short term weight loss, without the concern of long term weight loss.
20TaskCreate a fishbone visual organiser that gives an overview of unhealthy eating due to fad dietsEFFECT:Unhealthy Eating
21Journal and Push Yourself Outcome 3: Define what RDI means and explain which foods help to keep within the RDIHow many vitamins and nutrients do you need in a healthy diet?
22Outcome 4: Describe the modes of nutrition for plants and animals Lesson 4Outcome 4: Describe the modes of nutrition for plants and animals
25Notes Plants are usually autotrophic “auto” means self“trophic” means to nourishBut plants may also be saprophytic, parasitic, symbiotic or insectivorous
26TaskResearch each of the modes of nutrition to find a description and an example:SaprophyticParasiticSymbioticInsectivorousSaprophytic lives off dead organic matter (like a mushroom, but is classified as a plant)Parasitic live off a host with no benefit to the hostSymbiotic live together for mutual benefet (lichen is made of algae and fungi- algae make food, fungi holds onto surface)Insectivorous eat insects
27Task Read through the passage in activity 5. Answer questions at the end
28TaskMake a poster which shows one of the modes of nutrition covered today. Make sure it shows:TitleDiagram showing species involved in mode of nutritionDescription of the mode of nutrition
29Journal and Push Yourself Outcome 4: Describe the modes of nutrition for plants and animals
30Lesson 5Outcome 5: Describe the key stages of the digestive cycle including labelling the relevant organs
31TaskDigestion is the body’s mechanism of breaking down food to absorb into the blood stream1 minute paper. Prepare yourselves to answer the question in only 1 minute!Question:What parts of the human body are used for digesting food?
32Biodigital HumanShow biodigital human digestive system.
33Task Take a copy of the “Construct-a-gut” worksheet. Cut and paste the correct arrangement of the organs of the digestive system.Label the organs
34Task Research the function of each organ in the digestive cycle Mouth, gall bladder, oesophagus, stomach, liver, small intestine, appendix, large intestine, salivary glands, rectum, pancreas, anusDoes it assist with mechanical or chemical digestion? What do these terms mean?What is the order that food passes through the alimentary canal? Does it pass through all the organs of the digestive system?
35Stages of digestion Stage 1: The mouth Stage 2: The stomach Mechanical breakdown of food occurs through chewingChemical breakdown of food occurs through enzymes found in salivaStage 2: The stomachHydochloric acid is used for further chemical breakdown of food into a liquified substance
36Stages of digestion Stage 3: The small intestines Enzymes continue to chemically break down molecules of food. Enzymes come from the liver and pancreasNutrients get absorbed into the blood stream by finger like villi on the walls of the intestine. All of these villi increase the surface area to help absorptionStage 4: The large intestinesWater gets reabsorbed which solidifies the remaining undigested food
37Stages of digestion Stage 5: The rectum and anus Faeces pass through the final stage of the large intestines, and out through the anus. This is the waste product of digestion.
38Task Complete questions from Activity 10 (you may skip question 1 if you have already labelled the digestive system)
39Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 5: Describe the key stages of the digestive cycle including labelling the relevant organsHow small are the small intestines, how large are the large intestines?
40Lesson 6 part 1Outcome 6: What is the role of enzymes and what conditions are required to make them work?
41Enzymes - print out questions What is in the stomach that makes it a “cozy place to work in” for the enzymes?What are enzymes?What are the common characteristics of enzymes?Enzymes only act on ____________ of moleculehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XTUm-75-PL4
43Task Answer questions from activity 12 Answers appeared in the video or may be found in the information in activity 12
44Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 6: What is the role of enzymes and what conditions are required to make them work?What are some other types of enzymes, what do they break down and where are they produced?
45Lesson 6 part 2Outcome 6: What is the role of enzymes and what conditions are required to make them work?
46Teacher notes This experiment takes the whole lesson. Prepare as much as possible before lesson, get students working on setting up equipment and then talk about hypothesis/ results etc while waiting for outcome
47AimWhat are the optimum conditions for enzymes, like rennin, to work?
48Set up your experimentMake up each of the experiments found in activity 13Make up one more with a few drops of HCl in.
49Testing for optimum conditions for enzymes Experiment 1: How does temperature affect rennin?Test Tube ABoiled RenninTest Tube BCold ConditionsTest Tube DWarm Conditions
50Testing for optimum conditions for enzymes Experiment 2: How does acidity affect rennin?Test Tube CHigh pHTest Tube DUnchanged pHTest Tube ELow pHThis one is not in your book
51While you wait Write hypothesis Fill in diagram of experiment Once experiment is completed:Complete table of resultsAnswer questions at end of results
52Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 6: What is the role of enzymes and what conditions are required to make them work?What other enzymes are in the body, what do they break down and where are they produced?
53Lesson 7Outcome 7: Define decomposition and preservation of food and describe methods of preserving foodTEST Qs: What are two methods that were successful in preventing meat from going bad?Many food preservation methods work because they upset the operation of theenzymes in bacteria that cause food to go rotten. Select one of the methods in and explain how it stops the enzymes in the bacteria from operating.
54Watch Watch video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0En-_BVbGc What do the terms “decomposition” and “preservation” mean to you?
55Food Decomposition and Preservation Decomposition – the decomposition of food refers to saprophytes (bacteria and fungi) feeding on food, often making it unhealthy for eating.Preservation – the preservation of food refers to techniques that can help to slow the decomposition process.
56How do we preserve fruits, vegetables, meats and other foods? 2 week later
57Task1 minute challenge!Write down as many methods of preserving foods as you can think of.When instructed, share your answers with students on your table
58Task Activity 6: Decomposition and preservation of food Set up title, aim and results tableBe sure to label your test tubes with group name and test tube number
59Task Research the required conditions for saprophytes to live and grow Based on this knowledge, which test tubes do you think will be effective at preserving the meat and why?
60Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 7: Define decomposition and preservation of food and describe methods of preserving foodNot all saprophytes are bad. In fact some save lives. What saprophytes do this?
61Lesson 8Outcome 8: Explain how diffusion and semi permeable membranes relate to the small intestinesIodine turns a blue colour in the presence of starch. Some iodine solution was sealed in a semi – permeable membrane and the membrane containing iodine was placed in a container of starch. After a few minutes the iodine in the membrane was yellow and unchanged in appearance but the starch solution had turned blue. Explain these observations:
62DemonstrationHCl on cotton woolNH4OH on cotton woolWHILE WE WAIT….
64NotesDiffusion occurs when particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
65Task Activity 8 – Semi-permeable membranes Disect a dry sultana, a sultana soaked in water and a sultana soaked in honeyWrite down your observations of the difference between each sultana.What chemical has caused this difference?
67NotesA semi permeable membrane allows small particles through but not big ones.This is like a sieve straining water from food when cooking
68DiscussionWhat does diffusion and semi permeable membranes have to do with the small intestines?
69The small intestinesThe small intestine wall is covered in villi which act as the semi permeable membrane to allow digested food to flow into the blood stream by diffusion
70Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 8: Explain how diffusion and semi permeable membranes relate to the small intestinesWhat causes food to move through the small intestines into the large intestines?
71Final check of meat experiment Lesson 9 Part 1Final check of meat experimentOutcome 9: Label and describe the role of the organs of the respiration systemTest Question: Label the parts of the respiratory system shown below: diaphragm, right lung, trachea, larynx, bronchiole, left bronchus, alveoli.Smoking damages the cilia in the respiratory system. Why would this cause the smoker’s respiratory system to become congested?Cilia move mucous containing dust/bacteria upwards to be swallowed or expelled.When cilia are damaged this results in this material collecting in the passages causing congestion.
72Task Write final observation of meat samples. Rank your meat samples in order from most preserved to least preserved.
73Task Left side of room sits still. Middle of room walks on the spot Right side of room jogs on the spotHold your breath!
74Task Worksheet: Respiration System Read through and complete the worksheet questionsTry reading the questions through once first, then highlight important information as you read.
75Lesson 9 Part 2Outcome 9: Label and describe the role of the organs of the respiration systemTest Question: Label the parts of the respiratory system shown below: diaphragm, right lung, trachea, larynx, bronchiole, left bronchus, alveoli.Smoking damages the cilia in the respiratory system. Why would this cause the smoker’s respiratory system to become congested?Cilia move mucous containing dust/bacteria upwards to be swallowed or expelled.When cilia are damaged this results in this material collecting in the passages causing congestion.
76Watch and take notes Biodigital Human Fill in parts of respiration system on the Respiration worksheet from previous lesson
77Watch and take notesDissection of sheep lung and discussion of parts/functions
78TaskPick up a small piece of lung from the front and view the sample under a microscope. Describe the appearance.USE GOOD HYGEINE!If you placed a sample of lung and a sample of liver in a beaker of water, which would float and which would sink? Why?
80Lesson 9 Part 3Outcome 9: Label and describe the role of the organs of the respiration systemTest Question: Label the parts of the respiratory system shown below: diaphragm, right lung, trachea, larynx, bronchiole, left bronchus, alveoli.Smoking damages the cilia in the respiratory system. Why would this cause the smoker’s respiratory system to become congested?Cilia move mucous containing dust/bacteria upwards to be swallowed or expelled.When cilia are damaged this results in this material collecting in the passages causing congestion.
81Task Find the purpose of: Trachea Mucus in the trachea Cilia in the tracheaLarynxBronchiAlveoli covered in blood capillaries
82Task Watch Video on ClickView “Transportation systems in animals” Complete question sheet
83Outcome 10: Describe how humans get air into and out of the lungs Lesson 10Outcome 10: Describe how humans get air into and out of the lungs
84Outcome and Push Yourself Outcome 9: Label and describe the role of the organs of the respiration system
86The Mechanics of Breathing Place your hands at different points around (and under) your rib cage.Breathe in and out slowly. What do you observe?
87Model Apparatus Draw a diagram of the model with empty balloons Questions1) Draw another diagram showing what must change for air to fill the balloons.2) Write a paragraph describing what happens to air pressure and the volume of air as the rubber sheet is pulled
88Video ..\Resources\Breathing mechanism.mp4 Set up a table with the headings: “similarities” and “differences”Think, pair, share:How is the balloon apparatus similar to the respiration system? How is it different?
89Flow ChartStart with a simple diagram of the respiration system. Rearrange the steps below and then draw a series of diagrams which shows how we inhale then exhale.Rib muscles contract to lift ribcageDiaphragm relaxes upwardsDiaphragm contracts downwardsAir forced in (inspiration/ inhalation)Less volume/ More pressureMore volume/ Less pressureRib muscles relax, rib cage dropsAir forced out (expiration/ exhalation)
90Inhalation Air in Diaphragm contracts downwards Rib muscles contract to lift ribcageMore volume/ Less pressureAir forced in (inspiration/ inhalation)
91Exhalation Air out Diaphragm relaxes upwards Rib muscles relax, rib cage dropsLess volume/ More pressureAir forced out (expiration/exhalation)