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Assessing Prolonged Exposures. The DRL Approach Assessing Prolonged Exposures. The DRL Approach National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering,

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Presentation on theme: "Assessing Prolonged Exposures. The DRL Approach Assessing Prolonged Exposures. The DRL Approach National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessing Prolonged Exposures. The DRL Approach Assessing Prolonged Exposures. The DRL Approach National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania Department of Life- and Environmental Physics Bogdan Vamanu, MSc Valentin Acasandrei, MSc Dan Vamanu, PhD 8th Meeting of the EMRAS Tritium & C-14 Working Group May 30 - June 1, Bucharest, Romania

2 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania routine (tehnologically-normal) environmental releases resulting in prolonged exposures of the radiation workers (onsite) and the population (outside) SITING AUTHORIZATION SITING MONITORING

3 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania The DRL is defined as the radioactive release over a year that would expose members of the critical group to the regulatory dose limit. In general, nuclear power plants set their operating targets for releases of each radionuclide below 1% of the DRL. Technical Reports Series No. 42I Management of Waste Containing Tritium and Carbon-14 - IAEA radioactive release over a year critical group releases of each radionuclide below 1% of the DRL regulatory dose limit

4 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania Derived Release Limit (DRL): A limit imposed by the AECB on the release of a radioactive substance from a licensed nuclear facility such that compliance with the DRL gives reasonable assurance that the regulatory dose limit is not exceeded. Radioactive Release Data from Canadian Nuclear Generating Stations 1990 to INFO-0210/REV. 10 Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, October 2000 A limit imposed licensed nuclear facility reasonable assurance

5 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania From 2002 to 2004, the annual public dose was calculated using emissions to air and emissions to sewer in a worst case scenario model (i.e., a person living at the fence line 24 hours per day, 365 days per year breathing perimeter air and drinking sewer water at ICRP reference man recommended rates). Information and Recommendations from Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Staff In the Matter of Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. emissions to air emissions to sewer fence lineperimeter

6 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania When it approved the DRLs for each nuclear generating station, the AECB considered the environmental pathways through which radioactive material could reach the most exposed members of the public after being released from the facility. The most exposed members of the public are called the critical group.They are defined as those individuals who are expected to receive the highest dose of radiation because of such considerations as their age, diet, lifestyle and location. Radioactive Release Data from Canadian Nuclear Generating Stations 1990 to INFO-0210/REV. 10 Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, October 2000 environmental pathways location age, diet, lifestyle

7 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania Radioactive release over a year Critical group Regulatory dose limit Releases of each radionuclide below 1% of the DRL A limit imposed Licensed nuclear facility Reasonable assurance Emissions to air Emissions to sewer Fence line Perimeter Environmental pathways Age, diet, lifestyle Location What is… … that… … is allowed to… … so that the total dose aquired by an individual from the … … selected based on … … would not exceed ( ) the… …, via all… ? Problem Statement

8 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania Radioactive release over a year Critical group Regulatory dose limit Releases of each radionuclide below 1% of the DRL A limit imposed Licensed nuclear facility Reasonable assurance Emissions to air Emissions to sewer Fence linePerimeter Environmental pathways Age, diet, lifestyleLocation What is… … that… … is allowed to… … so that the total dose aquired by an individual from the … … selected based on … … would not exceed ( ) the… …, via all… ? What is the radioactive release over a year (Bq/year) that a nuclear facility is allowed to emit to environment (air, surface water, sewer) so that the total dose acquired by an individual (total effective dose equivalent – TEDE) from the critical group would not exceed (within reasonable assurance) the regulatory dose limit? DRL

9 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania Ensure that the facility IS operated so that Taking into account All the individual installations, All the nuclides released to environment, All exposure pathways, The TOTAL EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT – TEDE, POTENTIALLY acquired by an individual from the CRITICAL GROUP be less or equal to A FRACTION, P, NEGOCIABLE, of the regulatory dose limit.

10 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania

11 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania

12 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania

13 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania

14 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania (…) procedure for application to radioactive discharges and is addressed to the national regulatory bodies and technical and administrative personnel responsible for performing environmental impact analyses. (…) provides a practical generic methodology for assessing the impact of radionuclide discharges in terms of the resulting individual and collective radiation doses.

15 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania Special cases: 3 H, 14 C Specific Activity Models…

16 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 3H3H 3H2O3H2O AIR WATER the dose rate (Sv/a) for 3 H to the body of a representative member of the critical group; the steady state concentration of 3 H in atmospheric water vapour (Bq/L) at location x 1 resulting from airborne releases, the fraction of the total water intake that is derived from atmospheric water vapour at location x 1 steady state concentration of 3 H in water at location x 2 resulting from releases to the aquatic environment (Bq/L) the fraction of the total water intake of the potentially exposed person that is derived from water at location x 2 that has been contaminated with aquatic discharges of tritiated water the dose rate conversion factor (Sv/a per Bq/L of human body water content). the concentration of 3 H in air at location x 1 (Bq/m 3 ) the absolute humidity of the atmosphere INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION, Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides, Part 5, Compilation of Ingestion and Inhalation Dose Coefficients, ICRP Publication No. 72, Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York (1996).

17 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 14 C 14 CO 2 the effective dose rate (Sv/a) the specific activity (Bq 14 C per gram of C) to which food products at location x will be chronically exposed the fraction of total dietary carbon derived from location x by the representative member of the critical group the effective dose rate factor that relates the annual dose rate (Sv/a) to the concentration of 14 C per gram of carbon in people (Bq/g). the concentration of 14 C in air at location x (Bq/m 3 ) the concentration of airborne carbon, assumed to be 1.8 × 10–1 g/m 3, corresponding to an average atmospheric CO 2 concentration of 330 ppm KILLOUGH, G.G., ROHWER, P.S., A new look at the dosimetry of 14C released to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, Health Phys. 34 (1978) 141–159.

18 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 1 Pre-Assessment Build the Situation Map Acquire image maps; Geo-reference the maps; Build source pattern; Build receptor pattern. 2 Assessment 3 Wrapping-up DRL{g; r, p, s, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. - g: critical group identifier; - r: receptor identifier; - p: pathway identifier; - s: source identifier; - n: nuclide The Conformity criterion * - L(p,s,n): current emission level (Bq/s); - g: critical group identifier; - r: receptor identifier; - p: pathway identifier; - s: source identifier; - n: nuclide

19 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania Illustrative Examples Example 1 One Source, One Receptor, One Nuclide Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides The cases are purely fictitious; the assessment is performed in a blind run philosophy, using models default input values.

20 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania No. of Sources:1 No. of Receptors:1 Released Nuclide(s): 3 H Release Pathway:air Example 1 One Source, One Receptor, One Nuclide

21 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania Site Map Description: Northern Latitude (deg): Western Longitude (deg): Latitude Span (deg): Longitude Span (deg): Pre-Assessment Build the Situation Map Acquire image maps; Geo-reference the maps; Build source pattern; Build receptor pattern. Example 1 One Source, One Receptor, One Nuclide

22 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania Source #1 Latitude (deg.): Longitude (deg.): Pre-Assessment Build the Situation Map Acquire image maps; Geo-reference the maps; Build source pattern; Build receptor pattern. Example 1 One Source, One Receptor, One Nuclide

23 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania RECEPTOR #1 Latitude (deg): Longitude (deg): Pre-Assessment Build the Situation Map Acquire image maps; Geo-reference the maps; Build source pattern; Build receptor pattern. Example 1 One Source, One Receptor, One Nuclide

24 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, p, s, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. Source: Source #1 Receptor: Receptor #1 Source to Receptor Distance (km): Receptor Sector No. (1 to 12): 12 Nuclide: H-3 Release to AIR DOSE CRITERIA Maximum Admissible Dose from Source, to population, (Sv in 1a): Maximum Admissible Dose from Source, to workers (Sv in 1a): ======================== D.40. The DERIVED RELEASE LIMIT based on Infant Dose (Bq/s): D.41. The DERIVED RELEASE LIMIT based on Adult Dose (Bq/s): D.42. The DERIVED RELEASE LIMIT based on Workers Dose (Bq/s): ======================== C O N C L U S I O N D.43. THE RECOMMENDED DERIVED RELEASE LIMIT FOR THE......ANNUAL AVERAGE DISCHARGE RATE TO ATMOSPHERE of H-3, Qi (Bq/s), is: The consequent admissible Total Annual Discharge to Atmosphere..... of H-3 is: e13 Bq, i.e Ci DERIVED RELEASE LIMIT FACTOR, Infants, DRLFi (1/Sv): e DERIVED RELEASE LIMIT FACTOR, Adults, DRLFa (1/Sv): e10 Example 1 One Source, One Receptor, One Nuclide

25 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 3 Wrapping-up The Conformity criterion * Example 1 One Source, One Receptor, One Nuclide

26 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania AUTHORIZATION OPERATION Estimated Release Quantity of 3 H 3.5 * [Bq per a] C[1,1] = REJECTED What is it good for…

27 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania AUTHORIZATION OPERATION Estimated Release Quantity of 3 H 3.5 * [Bq per a] 2.3 * [Bq per a] C[1,1] = C[1,1] = REJECTED APPROVED

28 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania AUTHORIZATION OPERATION Current Release Status of 3 H * [Bq] 0.5 * [Bq] C[1,1] = * REJECTED

29 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania AUTHORIZATION OPERATION Current Release Status of 3 H * [Bq] 0.5 * [Bq] C[1,1] = * REJECTED 0.3 * [Bq] C[1,1] = APPROVED

30 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania No. of Sources:2 No. of Receptors:3 Released Nuclide(s): Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides SourceNuclidePathway Source #1I-125 I-131 Cs-134 Air Source #2I-131 Sr-90 Air

31 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 1 Pre-Assessment Build the Situation Map Acquire image maps; Geo-reference the maps; Build source pattern; Build receptor pattern. Source #1 Latitude (deg.): Longitude (deg.): Source #2 Latitude (deg.): Longitude (deg.): Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

32 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 1 Pre-Assessment Build the Situation Map Acquire image maps; Geo-reference the maps; Build source pattern; Build receptor pattern. Source #1 Latitude (deg.): Longitude (deg.): Source #2 Latitude (deg.): Longitude (deg.): Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

33 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania RECEPTOR #1 Latitude (deg): Longitude (deg): Pre-Assessment Build the Situation Map Acquire image maps; Geo-reference the maps; Build source pattern; Build receptor pattern. RECEPTOR #3 Latitude (deg): Longitude (deg): RECEPTOR #2 Latitude (deg): Longitude (deg): Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

34 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 1 Pre-Assessment Build the Situation Map Acquire image maps; Geo-reference the maps; Build source pattern; Build receptor pattern. Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

35 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. DRL(g;12,1,a,n) Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

36 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. DRL(g;12,1,a,n) DRL(g;10,1,a,n) Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

37 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. DRL(g;12,1,a,n) DRL(g;10,1,a,n) DRL(g;6,1,a,n) Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

38 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. DRL(g;12,1,a,n) DRL(g;10,1,a,n) DRL(g;6,1,a,n) DRL(g;12,2,a,n) Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

39 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. DRL(g;12,2,a,n) DRL(g;11,2,a,n) DRL(g;12,1,a,n) DRL(g;10,1,a,n) DRL(g;6,1,a,n) Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

40 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. DRL(g;11,2,a,n) DRL(g;7,2,a,n) DRL(g;12,2,a,n) DRL(g;12,1,a,n) DRL(g;10,1,a,n) DRL(g;6,1,a,n) Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

41 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. DRL(g;12,2,a,n) DRL(g;11,2,a,n) DRL(g;7,2,a,n) DRL(g;12,1,a,n) DRL(g;10,1,a,n) DRL(g;6,1,a,n) Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

42 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. SOURCE #1SOURCE #2 Receptor #1 Nuclide 134 CsDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 131 IDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 125 IDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 90 SrDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 131 IDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

43 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. SOURCE #1SOURCE #2 Receptor #2 Nuclide 134 CsDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 131 IDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 125 IDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 90 SrDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 131 IDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

44 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 2 Assessment DRL{g; r, s, p, n} For each critical group, source, nuclide, receptor, and pathway - compute the DRL. SOURCE #1SOURCE #2 Receptor #3 Nuclide 134 CsDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 131 IDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 125 IDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 90 SrDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci 131 IDRLinfants DRLadults DRLworkers Total adm Bq/s Bq/s Bq/s Bq e-3 Ci Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

45 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 3 Wrapping-up The Conformity criterion * Receptor #1 Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

46 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 3 Wrapping-up The Conformity criterion * Receptor #2 Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

47 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania 3 Wrapping-up The Conformity criterion * Receptor #3 Example 2 Multiple Sources, Multiple Receptors, Multiple Nuclides

48 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania OPERATION Receptor #1 Receptor #2 Receptor #3 Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #1] Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #2] Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #3] All but 131 I, Source #1 131 I, Source #1 [Bq] 131 I, Source # L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm I 2B Relesed: Bq 0.65 L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm

49 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania OPERATION Receptor #1 Receptor #2 Receptor #3 Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #1] Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #2] Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #3] All but 131 I, Source #1 131 I, Source #1 [Bq] 131 I, Source # L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm I 2B Relesed: Bq 0.65 L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm Res Wind from Source #1 towards Receptor #1 (sector 12) >1

50 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania OPERATION Receptor #1 Receptor #2 Receptor #3 Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #1] Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #2] Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #3] All but 131 I, Source #1 131 I, Source #1 [Bq] 131 I, Source # L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm I 2B Relesed: Bq 0.65 L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm Wind from Source #1 towards Receptor #1 (sector 12) >1 Wind from Source #1 towards Receptor #2 (sector 10) <1

51 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania OPERATION Receptor #1 Receptor #2 Receptor #3 Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #1] Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #2] Current Release Status of The Compund [Receptor #3] All but 131 I, Source #1 131 I, Source #1 [Bq] 131 I, Source # L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm I 2B Relesed: Bq 0.65 L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm L(1,a, 131 I)= Max adm Wind from Source #1 towards Receptor #1 (sector 12) >1 Wind from Source #1 towards Receptor #2 (sector 10) <1 <1 Wind from Source #1 towards Receptor #3 (sector 6) REJECTED APPROVED

52 Bogdan Vamanu, NIPNE, Romania EMRAS 2007 Spring Meeting, May 30 - June 1, 2007, Bucharest, Romania He who has the bread and the knife tells the name of the game… (Romanian popular wisdom) DRLs ARE NEGOCIABLE! The Dose Constraint (P factor)… The Relevant Pathways… Choosing the critical group… Choosing the receptor configuration (number, locations, etc.)… Other model parameters… emission release heights, diet, irrigation regime, etc. The Final Word?!.. Thank you.


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