2 Not you? Hey Smart Guy! Can you guess who can get prostate cancer? Well, guess again… any male can get prostate cancer
3 Facts That Every Man Over 40 Should Know about Prostate Cancer What do you know about prostate cancer?Not Much!Facts That Every Man Over 40 Should Know about Prostate Cancer
4 What is the Prostate Gland? The prostate is part of the male reproductive systemIts major function is to secrete a fluid to nourish semen during intercourseThe prostate is about the size of a walnut but it can grow with ageIt is located below the urinary bladder, in front of the rectum surrounding the urethra (the canal for the discharge of urine that extends from the urinary bladder to the outside)
5 What Is Prostate Cancer? In prostate cancer, as in other types of cancer, cells grow out of control and form tumorsIf the tumor is within the gland, the cancer is said to be localized and curableIf the cancer escapes the gland it is considered incurableEarly detection before the cancer escapes the gland becomes very importantEARLY DETECTION CAN POSSIBLY SAVE YOUR LIFE
6 What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? You might not have any at all!Often there are none, or they are not recognizedMajor symptoms:Urinary frequencySlow urinary flowPainful urinationBlood in urine or semenImpotenceLower back or thigh pain
7 How Significant Is Prostate Cancer? In the USA, 230,110 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. That is one man diagnosed every 3 minutesProstate cancer deaths are estimated at 29,900 That is one death every 18 minutesSource: Cancer Facts and Figures –2004- American Cancer Society
8 How much of a threat?Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed non-skin cancer in American men and the second leading cause of cancer death .
9 How does early detection help? Survival rate at 5 years is 99% for those whose cancer is still just in the prostate gland (localized).Survival rate at 5 years for those whose cancer has spread beyond the gland (late diagnosis) is only 31%
10 Who Is at Most Risk?Prostate cancer is almost twice as common in African-American men than in Caucasian menAfrican Americans are more than twice as likely to die when diagnosed than Caucasian menAlthough all men are at risk
11 Prostate cancer risk factors: Age: The risk increases with age, but 25% of diagnoses are made under age 65.Race: African-Americans have a rate of incidence double that of Caucasian menFamily history of prostate cancer: Men with a family history have two- to three-fold increase in the risk of prostate cancerDiet: A diet high in saturated animal fat can double the risk of developing prostate cancer.
12 Race as a Risk Factors Incidence Death Afr.-Am. 230.3 55.0 CaucHispAsianSource: Rates per 100,000 and age-adjusted. SEER incidence and U.S. cancer death rates, , in Cancer 82: , 1998 (SEER = NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program
13 Family History as a Risk Factor 2.4 times increased risk for men with a first-degree relative(Spitz, et al, “Familial patterns of prostate cancer: A case-control analysis”, J Urol, 1991, 146: )
14 Diet As A Risk FactorEating red meat increases the risk of developing prostate cancer 2.64 timesRed meat and dairy products are high in saturated fat rich in arachidonic acid (a fatty acid)Vegetable oil is rich in alpha linolenic acid (a fatty acid)By-products of these fats promote the growth and seriousness of prostate cancerEating a diet high in fats also lowers the body’s defenses
15 So what CAN I eat?A balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables! (5 servings/day)Lower your intake of red meat, processed and fried foods. Eat more plant-based food like soy protein.Watch portion sizes (3 oz meat/serving)Eat foods with lycopene (tomatoes, watermelon and red grapefruit) which may be associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer.
16 PreventionSelenium supplements in the organic form grown in yeast. (200 mcg)--In randomized studies this dose reduced the incidence of prostate cancer 63%Natural vitamin E (50 IU)--Shown in clinical trials to reduce the risk of prostate cancer by 40%
17 How to Avoid an Advanced Stage Diagnosis PSAEarly Detection is the Answer Men are assuming more responsibility for their health
18 No Warning!Since symptoms can be caused by other conditions annual testing is KEY!Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), a blood testDigital Rectal Examination (DRE), a physical examBasic tools to find Prostate Cancer EARLY!
19 What You Should Know About the PSA Test PSA is checked by a fingerstick blood test screeningPlease note that an out-of-range results could be caused by other problems so check with your doctorA follow-up visit to the doctor for a physical prostate check (DRE) improves the value of your PSA testing in early disease detectionDRE and PSA together are often able to detect prostate cancer better and sooner than either test alone.
20 Why do I have to have a DRE? In the DRE the doctor examines you by feeling the prostate gland through the rectum with his finger (digit)DRE improves the value of PSA testing in early disease detectionDRE and PSA together are often able to detect prostate cancer better and sooner than either test alone
21 Testing Guidelines DRE: 40 years and older every year (American Cancer Society guidelines)PSA: 50 years and older every yearIf family history of prostate cancer and/or African-American: 40 years and older every year (American Cancer Society guidelines)
22 Be a man! Take responsibility for your health! The normal range for PSA is 0.0 to 4.0 ng/ml. (This is just a guideline range)Knowing your “PSA number” lets you help track your own health.
23 Get checked at your health fair Date:Time:Room:For more Information contact:
24 What if my PSA is high?See your doctor for a thorough examination. Infection needs to be ruled out.Antibiotics are often prescribed to rule out infectionA free-PSA ratio test may be ordered if PSA remains high after antibiotics. It helps detect the presence of prostate cancer. A free-PSA ratio of 15% or less indicates a high probability of prostate cancer. Ultrasound and biopsy examination may be ordered if the Free-PSA ratio indicates possible cancer.