Presentation on theme: "HOW TO ASSIST A GERIATRIC PATIENT TO EAT Presented by:Phyllis Medley, RN, BSN."— Presentation transcript:
HOW TO ASSIST A GERIATRIC PATIENT TO EAT Presented by:Phyllis Medley, RN, BSN
OBJECTIVES After you take this class, you will be able to: 1.Ensure adequate nutritional intake by assisting patients with their meals as necessary. 2.Understand why some people need to be fed by another. 3.Feed and assist patients with meals in a safe, dignified manner according to their identified needs.
INTRODUCTION As one grows older, food needs change. Older people need less calories, but they need the same amount of vitamins, minerals, and protein that they needed when they were younger. If they are sick or have a compromising condition, they may need even more nutrients in order to get better or to heal.
There are many reasons why the older population is at risk for a poor diet: poor dentition lack of appetite Depression lack of resources Blindness swallowing problems unable to drive to the store for food
A good diet must include something from each of the four food groups: Dairycheese, milk, ice cream Meatchicken, steak, fish, beans, and pork Fruits and Vegetablesapples, pears, lettuce, tomatoes, orange juice, potatoes, broccoli GrainsBread and cereal
Some older people can feed themselves without any help, i.e., they can use a knife, fork and spoon, and open a milk carton. They can chew and swallow their food safely. Other older people need only a small amount of help. They may only need help to cut up their meat or open their milk carton, etc.
Still other older people need cues from someone. You may need to use a simple prompt such as, Eat a bite of the potatoes, please. Some need a lot of help in order to get a good diet. Some may be too weak to eat on their own. Some may not be able to manipulate a fork because of arthritic hands and if they do finally get food on a fork, they may not be able to get it from the plate to the mouth.
Another group of patients cant eat or drink anything without being assisted. They are totally dependent upon others for hydration and nutrition.
PROCEDURE FOR FEEDING PATIENTS 1.Prepare the patient Wash the patients hands Give the patient his/her dentures if not in place Ask if they need to go to the bathroom before eating and assist 2.Wash your hands before and after feeding each patient.
3.Be sure dining room/area is clean, bright, cheerful with no offensive odors. 4.Place patient in a comfortable, safe position at the table. 5.Place wheelchair patients at the table after moving the chair. 6.If the patient is in bed, be sure the head of the bed is elevated at least 30 degrees to prevent choking and so the patient can swallow food and fluids. 7.Collect the tray making sure that the correct diet was sent.
8.Check meal tray against the patient identification band for correctness. 9.Check food temperatures. Hot foods should not be hot enough to cause the patient to be burned, and cold foods should be cold. 10.Feed the patients slowly. 11.Tell the patient what he/she is eating. 12.If there is a paralysis or weakness on one side of the face, put the food and fluid in on the opposite side.
13.Have food cut into bite sized pieces. 14.Alternate foodsmeat, vegetable, other vegetable, salad, bread, sip of beverage. 15.If patient can hold and eat his/her bread, permit this. 16.Never force a patient to eat something he/she does not want. 17.At the end of the meal, record the amount of food/fluid the patient ate.
18.Wash the patients face and hands at the end of the meal. 19.Upon return to the room, change the patients shirt if anything was spilled during the meal. 20.If the patient was fed in the bed, be sure to clean the crumbs/food off the bed. 21.Keep the patient up for 30 minutes after the meal so he/she does not choke.
SUMMARY Nursing staff play a very important role in the patient meeting the food and fluid needs every day. Your good, cheerful attitude can help increase the patients appetite and make a positive impact on the dining experience.