15 Characteristics of the Ideal Fat Ruminal levelIn form of tryglicerides (less ruminal effects)Seed, encapsulated or protected (Ca soap)SaturatedIntestinal levelMedium lengthUnsaturated
16 Partial SummaryOilseeds have a good FA profile and when supplied as seeds are close to an “ideal fat”Saturated fats or calcium soaps of FA are viable alternatives, but its intestinal digestibility is lowDue to changes in intestinal digestion, energy values have been recently reevaluatedThe energy value of vegetable fats has increased, and that of animal and hydrogenated vegetable fats has dicreased.
26 Preliminary Conclusions: Fat Fats reduce intake with lower effects in full fats oilseeds, with the exception of FFSB, where intake is not affectedFats increase milk productionFats reduce milk fat between 0,04 (animal and protected fats) and 0,01 % (vegetable fats), except FFSB and cottonseed.All fats result in a slight reduction in milk protein between
27 Soybeans High fat content High protein content Positive effects on energy supplyHigh protein contentPositive effects in protein supply
28 OilseedsHigh protein content, generally degradable, and with some essential AA (Lys).The inclusion rate is limitted by the level and quality of the fat fractions.
29 Nitrogen Metabolism CP NoDeg-N InDig-N Deg-N Bac-N E NH3 Rumen Rec AA Pep - AADeg-NBac-NENH3RumenRecAALiverUsedProteinUrea
30 Protein RequirementsAmmonia and degradable protein requirements have been definedTrue protein is used more efficiently than non-protein NRequirements are expressed as digestible proteinSome aminoacids have requirements (Lys, Met)
31 Microbial Protein and Source of Nitrogen Griswold et al., 1996
33 Dairy CattleAs the level of production increases, the deficit of AA also increasesIn these conditions, the supply of essemtial AA is importantTherefore, the supply of protein supplements high in rumen undegradable protein, with high intestinal digestibility and good AA profile is important.
44 ObservationsNon-processed oilseeds have a limitted contribution to the supply of dietary AA to the small intestine, buy soybeans are the best optionProcessing provides the best added value, but those rich in lysine (as soybeans) have better protectionBecuase the higher inclusion rate, higher protein and high lysine content, FFSB are the best election for processing
49 ConclusionsFull Fat Soybeans are an excellent source of energy (fat), rumen degradable protein,If processed, they are also good sources of undegradable protein and lysineThe recommended level of inclusion depends on total PUFA in the diet: general suggestion: FFSB at maximum of 2,5 kg/animal/day. Extruded (assuming 10% fat), maximum 2-3 kg/animal/daySoybeans is the best option for processing among other oilseeds