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Feeding Full Fat Soybeans to Cattle Sergio Calsamiglia Departamento de Ciencia Animal y de los Alimentos Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona

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Presentation on theme: "Feeding Full Fat Soybeans to Cattle Sergio Calsamiglia Departamento de Ciencia Animal y de los Alimentos Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona"— Presentation transcript:

1 Feeding Full Fat Soybeans to Cattle Sergio Calsamiglia Departamento de Ciencia Animal y de los Alimentos Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona

2 Soybeans High fat content Positive effects on energy supply Effect of processing High protein content Positive effects in protein supply Effect of processing

3 Ruminal Metabolism of Fat Fat Glycerol Fatty Acid Saturated Unsaturated Fibrolytic Bacteria coo -

4 (Ikwuegbu and Sutton, 1982) Effect of Feeding Oil on ADF Digestion in the Rumen

5 Carbohydrate Degradation Fibre Starch Glucose Acetate Propionate Lactate Butyrate Pyruvate MILK FAT

6 Factors Affecting Toxicity Fat Glycerol Fatty Acid Saturated Unsaturated Fibrolytic Bacteria coo - X

7 Effect of FFSB Processing on Free FA (mg/g substrate DM) Reddy et al., 1994

8 Effect of Type of Processing of FFSB on NDF Degradation in the Rumen Reddy et al., 1994

9 Characteristics of the Ideal Fat Ruminal level In form of tryglicerides (less ruminal effects) Seed, encapsulated or protected (Ca soap) Saturated

10 Intestinal Digestion Triglycerides FA Monoglycerides FA Bile salts Emulsion FA Absorption

11 Emulsion - Digestion Fat emulsion is necessary for absorption Micel foramation is best with short and medium FA Micel formation is best with unsaturated FA

12 Degree of Saturation/Unsaturation

13 Ingestinal Digestibility of Fats NRC, 2001

14 Energy Value of Fats NRC, 2001

15 Characteristics of the Ideal Fat Ruminal level In form of tryglicerides (less ruminal effects) Seed, encapsulated or protected (Ca soap) Saturated Intestinal level Medium length Unsaturated

16 Partial Summary Oilseeds have a good FA profile and when supplied as seeds are close to an ideal fat Saturated fats or calcium soaps of FA are viable alternatives, but its intestinal digestibility is low Due to changes in intestinal digestion, energy values have been recently reevaluated The energy value of vegetable fats has increased, and that of animal and hydrogenated vegetable fats has dicreased.

17 Productive Responses Measures: DM Intake Milk Production Milk Composition Source of Data: French: (Chilliard & Ollier, 1994) USA: (Shaver, 1993) NRC, 2001 (Allen, 2000)

18 Effects on DM Intake

19

20 Effects on Production +1,1 kg/d

21 Effects on Production +0,19 kg/d

22 Effects on Milk Fat - 0,04%

23 Effects on Milk Fat - 0,01%

24 Effects on Milk Protein - 0,05%

25 Effects on Milk Protein - 0,07%

26 Preliminary Conclusions: Fat Fats reduce intake with lower effects in full fats oilseeds, with the exception of FFSB, where intake is not affected Fats increase milk production Fats reduce milk fat between 0,04 (animal and protected fats) and 0,01 % (vegetable fats), except FFSB and cottonseed. All fats result in a slight reduction in milk protein between

27 Soybeans High fat content Positive effects on energy supply High protein content Positive effects in protein supply

28 Oilseeds High protein content, generally degradable, and with some essential AA (Lys). The inclusion rate is limitted by the level and quality of the fat fractions.

29 Nitrogen Metabolism CP Deg-N NoDeg-N Bac-N NH3 AA InDig-N Urea Used Protein Rumen Liver E Rec Pep - AA

30 Protein Requirements Ammonia and degradable protein requirements have been defined True protein is used more efficiently than non-protein N Requirements are expressed as digestible protein Some aminoacids have requirements (Lys, Met)

31 Microbial Protein and Source of Nitrogen Griswold et al., 1996

32 Aminoacid Supply: CNCPS (Lactation – 17% CP/DM) CNCPS, 2001

33 Dairy Cattle As the level of production increases, the deficit of AA also increases In these conditions, the supply of essemtial AA is important Therefore, the supply of protein supplements high in rumen undegradable protein, with high intestinal digestibility and good AA profile is important.

34 Protein Degradation

35 Intestinal Digestion

36 Supply of Digestible Protein (g/kg) FFSB: 39% CP x 20% RUP x 85% ID = 6,63 Sunflower: 19% CP x 11% RUP x 80% ID = 1,67 Linseed: 22% CP x 14% RUP x 85% ID = 2,61 Rapessed: 21% CP x 21% RUP x 50% ID = 2,15

37 Supply of Digestible Protein (g/d) FFSB: 6,63% x 2,5 kg = 170 g(EE=20%) Sunflower: 1,67% x 0,8 kg = 13 g(EE=44%) Linseed: 2,61% x 1,0 kg = 26 g(EE=36%) Rapeseed: 2,15% x 0,9 kg = 19 g(EE=40%)

38 Dietary Protein = Intake Protein (kg/d) x % Ruminal Degradability x % Intestinal Digestibility X % AA

39 Lysine in Bacteria and Feeds g/100 gAA

40 Methionine in Bacteria and Feeds g/100 gAA

41 Dietary Protein = Intake Protein (kg/d) x % Ruminal Degradability x % Intestinal Digestibility X % AA

42 Available Methionine Seeds

43 Avalialable Lysine Seeds

44 Observations Non-processed oilseeds have a limitted contribution to the supply of dietary AA to the small intestine, buy soybeans are the best option Processing provides the best added value, but those rich in lysine (as soybeans) have better protection Becuase the higher inclusion rate, higher protein and high lysine content, FFSB are the best election for processing

45 Processing and Undegradable Protein

46 Productive Response a b c

47 How Much RFFSB in my Diet? (según Knapp et al., 1991)

48 Typical Diet (% DM, 40 L milk) Alfalfa Hay10NEl, Mcal/kg 1.72 Corn Silage45CP, % 17 CGF 8NDF, % 32 Corn10f-NDF, % 22 Soybean Hulls 3NFC, % 38 SBM 5EE, % 5.5 R-FFSB 9Rumen pH 6.3 DDGS 6Lys, %Req117 MinVit 4Met, % Req112

49 Conclusions Full Fat Soybeans are an excellent source of energy (fat), rumen degradable protein, If processed, they are also good sources of undegradable protein and lysine The recommended level of inclusion depends on total PUFA in the diet: general suggestion: FFSB at maximum of 2,5 kg/animal/day. Extruded (assuming 10% fat), maximum 2-3 kg/animal/day Soybeans is the best option for processing among other oilseeds


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