Presentation on theme: "Trends in Childhood Obesity Current Data and A Call to Sustained Action Presentation to the Essex-Passaic Wellness Coalition Uche Akobundu, PhD, RD Hunger-Free."— Presentation transcript:
Trends in Childhood Obesity Current Data and A Call to Sustained Action Presentation to the Essex-Passaic Wellness Coalition Uche Akobundu, PhD, RD Hunger-Free Communities Program Director
Introduction Goal To provide an overview of federal, state and local trends in childhood obesity, determinants of overweight/obesity in children and practical recommendations for action
Introduction Overview – Federal, state and local trends in childhood obesity – Social, environmental and policy-based determinants – Effectiveness of available interventions – Future research needs / action steps for community members
About the United Way of Passaic County How We Work
Community Impact HEALTH Did you know? 32,000 Passaic County households are food insecure. Those most at risk for food insecurity include the un/underemployed, people with disabilities, single parents with children and people with language barriers. Food insecurity increases risk of poor health in adults and children. You can LIVE UNITED by supporting these initiatives: Hunger Free Communities Leads the Passaic County Food Policy Council Promotes a community-wide plan to end hunger by addressing food availability, affordability, & accessibility, and consumer education and advocacy. Provides grant funding for innovative programs to advance food access.
Trends in Childhood Obesity Current Data and Opportunities for Action Uche Akobundu, PhD, RD Hunger-Free Communities Program Director
Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents in the past 30 years. – The percentage of children aged 6–11 years in the United States who were obese increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 18% in 2010. – Similarly, the percentage of adolescents aged 12–19 years who were obese increased from 5% to 18% over the same period. – Obesity rates are high among preschool children in the United States. Approximately one child in eight aged 2–5 years is obese. In 2010, more than one third of children and adolescents were overweight or obese. Source: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Population Health. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htmhttp://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm
Childhood Obesity Overweight and obesity describe ranges of weights higher than what health professionals note are healthy for a given height. – Overweight and obesity are caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, overeating, and lack of adequate physical activity. Overweight is defined as having excess body weight for a particular height from fat, muscle, bone, water, or a combination of these factors. Obesity is defined as having excess body fat. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm
Childhood Obesity Trends Trends In Child - Adolescent Overweight By Age: Center for Disease Control & Prevention
Percentage of Overweight 2- to 4-year-old Children (Enrolled in WIC), by Year, New Jersey and U.S., 2000-2005 New Jersey State Health Assessment Data. CDC Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS), New Jersey. http://www4.state.nj.us/dhss- shad/indicator/view/OveWICChi.UT_US.htmlhttp://www4.state.nj.us/dhss- shad/indicator/view/OveWICChi.UT_US.html
Prevalence of obesity among low-income, preschool-aged children Source: Vital Signs: Obesity Among Low-Income, Preschool-Aged Children United States, 2008–2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6231a4.htm?s_cid=mm6231a4_w
Source: 2011 Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, United States Decreases and increases* in obesity§ prevalence from 2008 to 2011 among low-income preschool-aged children
Obesity in New Jersey Obesity the region has been rising steadily for the past decade. We can extrapolate that these rates are beginning to flat-line, in line with recent data that suggests a flattening of obesity in adults are across the nation. Almost one quarter (23.8%) of adults in New Jersey are obese, compared with 19% in 2002. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. State Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity profile – New Jersey. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/new_jersey.htmlhttp://www.cdc.gov/obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/new_jersey.html.
NJ County-Level Obesity Data Source: New Jersey State Health Assessment Data.
Local Data on Children There is limited local data on childhood obesity and overweight by county, however Rutgers University data is available for selected municipalities
Overall, one in ten students (10.9%) was reported to be obese in 2011. Obesity Trends: NJ Adolescents Source: Argawal, M. The Status of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity in New Jersey. Rutgers Center on State Health Policy, 2012. http://www.state.nj.us/health/fhs/shapingnj/library/ObesityReport_v6_Final.pdf http://www.state.nj.us/health/fhs/shapingnj/library/ObesityReport_v6_Final.pdf
Obesity Trends: NJ Adolescents Source: Argawal, M. The Status of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity in New Jersey. Rutgers Center on State Health Policy, 2012. http://www.state.nj.us/health/fhs/shapin gnj/library/ObesityReport_v6_Final.pdf http://www.state.nj.us/health/fhs/shapin gnj/library/ObesityReport_v6_Final.pdf
NJ is among the states with the lowest rates of obese 10- – 17- year olds Source: F is for Fat 2013. Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. http://fasinfat.org/files/fasinfat2013.pdfhttp://fasinfat.org/files/fasinfat2013.pdf
How Did We Get Here?
Selected Determinants of Childhood Obesity Food Behaviors Over-consumption of sugar and salty foods/not getting recommended amounts of fruits & vegetables Lack of exercise Food Environment – Disparities in availability of and access to healthy food retail – Highly prevalent junk food marketing Physical Activity Behavior – Almost all children do not meet the guidelines for being physically active for 60 minutes each day Changes in Society – American household structure, including delayed marriage, increased divorce, and women's movement into paid labor force Access to nutrition education – Diet-related health literacy is challenged by information-rich environment Physical Activity Environment – Traffic, crime level, pleasantness of neighborhoods and parks condition of sidewalks are most commonly reported barriers. Source: F is for Fat 2013. Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. http://fasinfat.org/files/fasinfat2013.pdfhttp://fasinfat.org/files/fasinfat2013.pdf
Selected Determinants of Childhood Obesity Economic Constraints – Health insurance, transportation access, ability to purchase/access to health supportive activities Limited Time – Long working hours, increased car time Schools – Marketing of foods, availability of low nutrition foods and beverages, curriculum changes (health education and physical education) Community Design – Driver-centered, limited public transportation, retail/employment centers separate from housing Marketing and Advertising – Junk food marketing to children, popularity of fad dieting/extreme weight loss programs Source: F is for Fat 2013. Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. http://fasinfat.org/files/fasinfat2013.pdfhttp://fasinfat.org/files/fasinfat2013.pdf
There is Hope!
What is Going Well Dietary intake of children Number of children (HS students) meeting physical activity guidelines Menu labeling environment Parental knowledge, awareness and demand for healthy foods and environments
What is Going Well Number of children eating a healthy diet is improving Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Diet Quality of Children Age 2- 17 Years as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010.
But there is cause for concern…
Effective Treatment of Obesity Evidence suggests that the key components of a successful treatment program include: Modify diet (i.e., traffic light diet) Limit sedentary behavior to no more than 2 hours per day Gradually increase physical activity to 60 minutes of moderate intensity activity per day Weight maintenance (not weight loss) Use behavioral techniques to increase and maintain motivation for lifestyle change (pros and cons of change, identify and overcome barriers, goal-setting, develop coping strategies)
Future Intervention/Research Needs High-quality evidence on successful, generalizable treatment programs is limited. – Research as present is mixed due to variety of studies, protocols, populations studies and outcomes More research is needed to determine the effect of pediatric obesity treatment on behavioral, physiological, and psychosocial outcomes. – The effect of improvements in cardiovascular and metabolic health on the long-term co-morbidities associated with childhood obesity has not been studied. The cost effectiveness of obesity treatments should be determined since they may appear to be expensive. – Research that quantifies the Return on Investment presented by such interventions can facilitate policy change.
Action Steps: Community Groups To continue the downward trend in obesity, continued communitywide action is needed. Community members can help prevent obesity in young children by: – Creating partnerships with civic leaders and child-care providers to make changes that promote healthy eating and active living; – Making it easier for families with children to buy healthy, affordable foods and beverages in their neighborhood; and – Providing opportunities for children to play safely through access to community parks and other recreation areas. – Creating buzz around the topic of childhood obesity – make it a local issue – Leverage local resources to engage the community in action steps towards creating a healthy food environment
School meals matter! 12.5 Million eat Breakfast 31 Million eat Lunch Interventions Targeted at Childcare and School Settings Physical activity in and around schools!
Camden, Newark, Trenton, & Vineland Essex, Morris, Passaic, Sussex, & Union Counties Local Organizations Making a Difference
Hudson Institute. Better-For- You-Foods. Its Just Good Business. Obesity Solutions Initiatives, 2011. Interventions Targeted at Business Community
Department of Health, Rockland County, NY Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York City, NY Camden, Newark, Trenton, & Vineland Local Organizations Making a Difference
Take Home Messages Childhood obesity in the US and New Jersey is high but the rate of increase is slowing. Changes to our social, environmental, family life, food shopping and dietary patterns all contributed to rising rates. However, there is hope and there are many efforts at the state, regional and local levels that provide great models for addressing childhood obesity in the community. There are many practical actions local groups can take to also make a difference to the health of children in the community.
Public Health Matters! Improvements our built and social environment & policies can impact our health! VS 39
Thank You! Uche Akobundu, PhD, RD Hunger-Free Communities Program Director United Way of Passaic County Paterson, NJ (973) 279-8900 email@example.com