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© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. AHA 2008 Resistant Hypertension: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment Slide Set David A. Calhoun, MD, FAHA Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program University of Alabama at Birmingham Based on the AHA 2008 Scientific Statement Resistant Hypertension: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Resistant Hypertension: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research Writing Committee Members David A. Calhoun, MD, FAHA, Chair Daniel Jones, MD, FAHAStephen Textor, MD, FAHA David C. Goff, MD, FAHATimothy P. Murphy, MD, FAHA Robert D. Toto, MD, FAHAAnthony White, PhD William C. Cushman, MD, FAHA William White, MD Domenic Sica, MD, FAHAKeith Ferdinand, MD Thomas D. Giles, MDBonita Falkner, MD, FAHA Robert M. Carey, MD, FAHA, MACP
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. This slide set was adapted from the AHA 2008 Scientific Statement for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Resistant Hypertension. Hypertension 2008; published online before print April 7, 2008.
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Blood pressure remaining above goal in spite of concurrent use of 3 antihypertensive agents of different classes. Ideally, 1 of the 3 agents should be a diuretic & all agents should be prescribed at optimal dose amounts. Resistant Hypertension
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Rationale Identify high-risk patients Identify patients with reversible causes - Benefits from diagnostic tools - Therapeutic interventions
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Definition Highlights Use of diuretic recommended but not required before diagnosing resistant hypertension. Doses should be optimal but not necessarily maximal before diagnosing resistant hypertension. Controlled resistant hypertension: high blood pressure controlled but with use of 4 of more agents should be considered resistant.
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Prevalence Prevalence is unknown, but observational and clinical trials suggest it is a common clinical problem. In a recent analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants being treated for hypertension, only 53% were controlled to <140/90 mm Hg. 1 Of NHANES participants with CKD, only 37% were controlled to <130/80 mm Hg 2 and only 25% of diabetic participants were controlled to <130/85 mm Hg. 1 In the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) after approximately 5 years of follow-up, 27% of participants were on 3 or more medications. 3 1 Hajjar I, Kotchen TA. JAMA 2003; 2 Peralta CA et al. Hypertension 2005; 3 Cushman WC et al. Clin Hypertens.
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Patient Characteristics Associated with Resistant Hypertension High baseline blood pressure Older age Obesity Excessive dietary salt ingestion Chronic kidney disease Diabetes
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Patient Characteristics Associated with Resistant Hypertension Left ventricular hypertrophy African American race Female gender Residence in Southeastern United States
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Lifestyle Factors Contributing to Resistant Hypertension Obesity or overweight High salt diet Physical inactivity Ingestion of low-fiber, high-fat diet Heavy alcohol ingestion
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Causes of Resistance to Hypertension Treatment Poor adherence with prescribed medications Inaccurate blood pressure measurement White coat hypertension
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Resistant Hypertension Confirm appropriate treatment Identify causes - Secondary? Document target organ damage
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Non-Narcotic Analgesics - Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents including aspirin - Selective COX-2 inhibitors Sympathomimetic agents - decongestants - diet pills - cocaine Stimulants -methylphenidate -dexmethylphenidate, -dextroamphetamine - amphetamine, methamphetamine -modafinil Substances that Can Interfere with Blood Pressure Control
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Substances that Can Interfere with Blood Pressure Control Alcohol Oral contraceptives Cyclosporine Erythropoietin Natural licorice Herbal compounds -ephedra - ma huang
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Common Obstructive sleep apnea Renal parenchymal disease Primary aldosteronism Renal artery stenosis Secondary Causes of Resistant Hypertension
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Secondary Causes of Resistant Hypertension Uncommon Pheochromocytoma Cushings disease Hyperparathyroidism Aortic coarctation Intracranial tumor
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Treatment of Resistant Hypertension Non-Pharmacologic Recommendations Weight loss Regular exercise (at least 30 min most days of the week) Low dietary salt ingestion (<100 mEq sodium/24-hr) Moderate alcohol ingestion (no more than 2 drinks per day for most men and 1 drink per day for women or lighter weight persons) Ingestion of low-fat, high-fiber diet Treat obstructive sleep apnea if present
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Treatment of Resistant Hypertension Pharmacologic Recommendations Withdrawal or down titration of interfering substances as possible Use of a long-acting thiazide diuretic, preferably chlorthalidone Combine agents with different mechanisms of action Recommended triple regimen of -ACE inhibitor or ARB - Calcium channel blocker -Thiazide diuretic
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Treatment of Resistant Hypertension Consider addition of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist Use of loop diuretic may be necessary in patients with CKD (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min)
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. If a specific secondary cause of hypertension is suspected in a patient with resistant hypertension, referral to the appropriate specialist is recommended as needed. In the absence of suspected secondary causes of hypertension, referral to a hypertension specialist is recommended if the blood pressure remains elevated in spite of 6 months of treatment. Referral to a Specialist
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Controlled Resistant Hypertension Such patients are at increased risk of reversible and/or secondary causes of hypertension. Consider adjustment of the treatment regimen to maintain blood pressure control but with use of fewer medications and/or with use of a regimen that minimizes adverse effects.
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Resistant Hypertension: Diagnostic and Treatment Recommendations Confirm Treatment Resistance Office blood pressure >140/90 or 130/80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease and Patient prescribed 3 or more antihypertensive medications at optimal doses, including if possible a diuretic or Office blood pressure at goal but patient requiring 4 or more antihypertensive medications
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Exclude Pseudoresistance Is patient adherent with prescribed regimen? Obtain home, work, or ambulatory blood pressure readings to exclude white coat effect Identify and Reverse Contributing Lifestyle Factors Obesity Physical inactivity Excessive alcohol ingestion High salt, low-fiber diet
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents Sympathomimetics - Diet pills - Decongestants Stimulants Oral contraceptives Licorice Ephedra Discontinue or Minimize Interfering Substances
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Screen for Secondary Causes of Hypertension Obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, witnessed apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness) Primary aldosteronism (elevated aldosterone/renin ratio) Chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) Renal artery stenosis (young female, known atherosclerotic disease, worsening renal function) Pheochromocytoma (episodic hypertension, palpitations, diaphoresis, headache) Cushings disease (moon facies, central obesity, abdominal striae, inter-scapular fat deposition) Aortic coarctation (differential in brachial or femoral pulses, systolic bruit)
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Pharmacologic Treatment Maximize diuretic therapy, including possible addition of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist Combine agents with different mechanisms of action Use of loop diuretics in patients with chronic kidney disease and/or patients receiving potent vasodilators (e.g., minoxidil) Refer to Specialist Refer to appropriate specialist for known or suspected secondary cause(s) of hypertension Refer to hypertension specialist if blood pressure remains uncontrolled after 6 months of treatment
© 2008, American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Resistant Hypertension: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment The full-text guideline is also available on the American Heart Association Web site:
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