7Weight loss and Knee OAmoderate weight loss (weight reduction > 5.1% or > 0.24%/wk) improves self-reported disability.No clear evidence that Weight loss reduces pain or improve patient global evaluation.A BMI greater than 30 has a 4 times increase in risk of knee arthritis – so weight loss important preventative measure!
8Diet A diet high in olive oil, fish and vegetables reduced pain by 40% & morning stiffness by 10% in RA.? effects for OA. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2003; 62:Diets rich in vitamins C slow the progression of osteoarthritis.Arthritis and Rheumatism 1996; 39:
9REHABILITATION Therapeutic Excercise Ultrasound, TENS, Pulsed Electric Stimulation, AcupunctureHydrotherapyAquatic ExcerciseBalneotherapy
10Therapeutic Exercise in Knee OA Small short term benefit for knee pain and physical function.No evidence long term benefit.Is useful pre-operatively.
11Aquatic-exercise and Knee OA some beneficial short-term effects for patients with hip and/or knee OA.no long-term effects have been documented.Can be useful for pre-operative conditioning.
12Balneotherapy (or spa therapy, mineral baths) The scientific evidence is weak.Cochrane review - Seven trials (498 patients)mineral baths compared to no treatmentDead Sea + sulphur versus no treatment,Dead Sea baths versus no treatmentsulphur baths versus no treatmentmineral baths may be benificial (small effect).Of all other balneological treatments no clear effects were found.
14Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) small improvements in pain control over placebo.Methodology of the studies is poor.
15Pulsed Electric Stimulation Electrical stimulation therapy had a small to moderate effect on outcomes for knee OA.
16Acupuncturerandomised controlled trial”, Foster et al. (BMJ 2007;335;436),acupuncture no benefit as an adjunct to a course of individualised, exercise based physiotherapy.Other papers looking at acupuncture - some benefithowever have had major methodological flaws .Annals of Internal Medicine 2004; 141(12):
17Thermotherapy and knee OA Ice massage beneficial effect on ROM, swelling, function and knee strength.Ice packs did not affect pain significantly.Hot packs had no beneficial effect on edema compared with placebo or cold application.
18Brace and Orthosis (insole). Brace (neoprene sleeve) and a lateral wedge insole have small beneficial effect.However, long-term adherence to brace and insole treatment is low.
19Pharmacology Painkillers Anti-inflammatory Chondrotin and Glucosamine Alternative medicationsInjections
20Paracetamol versus Placebo and versus NSAIDs significant reduction in pain compared to placeboBUTSmall improvements in pain.less effective overall than NSAIDs in terms of pain reduction, global assessments and in terms of improvements in functional status.
21NSAIDS NSAIDs are effective in relieving short-term pain in OA. NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose should be considered in patients who respond inadequately to simple analgesia.longer-term use is potential for serious side effects.(gastropathy, including peptic ulcer disease, and care if hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease)Concurrent use of more than one NSAID and other medications, increasing age and duration of treatment substantially increase the risk of side effects.
22Topical NSAIDSTopical NSAIDs were effective and safe in short-term treatment of OA.lack of any trial data to support their long-term useEffects wane after 2 weeks.Larger and longer trials are necessary
23COX-2CLASS study demonstrated that coxibs reduce clinical upper GI events by approximately 55%Consider COX-2 if high risk of peptic ulcer disease.Caution should be used due to their association with cardiovascular, renal and other adverse effects.
24Opioid Analgesiaalternative when paracetamol and NSAID drugs are contraindicated, ineffective, or poorly tolerated.A once-a-day formulation of tramadol helps pain,fewer interruptions in sleep and improved compliance.effective alternative treatment for acute flares of OA pain.
25CODEINECodeine in combination with simple analgesia or NSAID might be appropriate for the occasional pain relief or for patients in whom only simple analgesia is not effective.However, repeated use increases the occurrence of side effects.
26Chondroitin22 RCTs (n = 4056)Conclusion: Based on evidence from higher-quality trials of patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis, chondroitin does not reduce pain more than placebo or no treatment.
27Glucosamine 25 studies with 4963 patients. If Analysis restricted to studies with adequate allocation concealmentNo benefit for pain, function and stiffness subscales.Collectively, the 25 RCTs22% (improvement in pain and a 11% improvement in functionNon-Rotta preparation or adequate allocation concealment failed to show benefit in pain and WOMAC functionRotta preparation showed that glucosamine was superior to placebo in the treatment of pain and functional impairment resulting from symptomatic OA.
28Alternative Herbal Medicine Cochrane review found 5 studies.The evidence for avocado-soybean unsaponifiables in the treatment of osteoarthritis is convincing .Single studies of other interventions, a willow bark preparation (Reumalex), topical capsaicin and tipi tea, were inconclusive.
29Corticosteroid Injections Effective pain reliever however often only for short period (4 weeks)
30Viscosupplements at one to four weeks post injection CSI and HA same. Between five and 13 weeks post injection, HA products were more effective than corticosteroids
31Surgical Treatment Arthroscopy Osteotomy Uni Patellofemoral ArthroplastyTotal knee ArthroplastyFusion
32Arthroscopic SurgeryThere is 'gold' level evidence that AD has no benefit for undiscriminated OACan help acute mechanical pain due to meniscal tear, chondral flap or loose body.The acute pain is helped, however can have residual pain from the OA.
34High Tibial Osteotomy Indications Isolated Compartment OA Less than 12 degrees deformityStable kneeYoung and activeBenefitsAvoid arthroplastyNo limits on activity
35Inconsistent results – 50% still effective at 7-10 years ProblemInconsistent results – 50% still effective at 7-10 yearsAt 5 years 75% good or excellent.At 8 years 60% good or excellent.(Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 124: , 2004)Arthroplasty after osteotomy may not be as successful.Certainly more challenging surgery.
42When to OperateWhen pain is bad enough to limit lifestyle and function.Don’t wait too long -surgery performed later in the natural history of functional decline results in worse postoperative functional status.However,those with the poorest preoperative scores gained most from the operation.patients operated on later were more satisfied with their outcomes.
43Total knee Replacement 91-96% prosthesis survival rate at years of follow-up.We now know that approximately 85 percent of the knee implants will last 20 years.Thus most implants will last a life time.
44Improvements in surgical technique, prosthetic designs, bearing surfaces, and fixation methods might increase the survival rate of these implants even longer.