Background Information Divided into three historic periods Aristocratic Population mostly rural and poor Foods associated with Japan introduced by China Buddhism introduced (545 BC) by Korea Middle Ages (Samurai) Warlords competed in displays of power & refinement Travelling – Bento boxes & Sushi Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch Modern 1856 Commodore Perry forced Japan to allow outsiders Ashkenazi & Jacob, 2003
Japanese Cultural Beliefs Shinto Humans inherently good Purity/Pollution Buddhism Harmony Family Nature Society Imbalance Poor diet Lack of exercise Conflict Ashkenazi & Jacob, 2003; Kittler & Sucher, 2008 http://www.japaneselifestyle.com.au/culture/geisha.html
Traditional Dietary Practices Hara hachi bunme Limited foods Appearance important Fresh is best New Years Celebration Tea Ritual http://www.yale.edu/macmillan/pier/resources/lessons/cooking_table.htm Moriyama, 2005; Kittler & Sucher, 2008
Dietary Analysis Teriyaki Fish Japanese-style omelet (Tamago) Soba noodles Rice cakes Edemame Japanese persimmon Rice Atlantic Mackerel Green tea Miso soup Carrots & Spinach Seaweed Umeboshi Based on 20 year old, 110 pound, active 51 female. Beverages included water and green tea. Diet Analysis, 2009
Diet Analysis Results My Pyramid Diet Analysis, 2009
Dietary Analysis Results CHO, PRO, FAT Calorie intake was 100% of DRI Goal Diet Analysis, 2009
Dietary Analysis Results Fats and Cholesterol Cholesterol intake was 960 mg (320% of DRI) EFA Omega-6 was 129% of DRI Omega-3 was 180% of DRI Diet Analysis, 2009
Dietary Analysis Results Vitamins and Minerals Diet Analysis, 2009
Traditional Health Practices Harmony and cleanliness extremely important. Conflict disrupts proper flow of energy and leads to illness. Herbal medicine (kampo) growing in popularity. Energy flow can be restored by: Resolution of conflict Acupuncture Moxibustion Massage Kittler & Sucher, 2008
Current Health Issues High salt intake linked to: Gastric Cancer Hypertension Stroke Stress-induced illness – koroshi (death from work) Osteoporosis (insufficient Calcium intake) Diabetes (prevalent at smaller BMIs) Kittler & Sucher, 2008; Liu & Russell, 2008; Nagura, et al., 2009; Sakurai, et al., 2009
Counseling Avert eyes as a sign of respect. Silence is valued – listen and be patient. Formality and politeness is essential. Emotional outbursts are seen as immature. Extremely high-context culture. Generally, non-touching. Kittler & Sucher, 2008
Summary Japan foods focus on fresh foods, rice and seafoods. The diet is high in essential fatty acids, but low in calcium, vitamin E and vitamin D. High salt content may be responsible for many chronic health conditions and high rates of cancer. When counseling, must be patient during long silences. Individual needs are secondary to that of family/society.
It has been said of Japanese food that it is a cuisine to be looked at rather than eaten. I would go further and say it is to be meditated upon, a kind of silent music evoked by the combination of lacquerware and the light of a candle flickering in the dark. - Junichiro Tanizaki http://www.mxbrands.com/Japanese%20Rock%20Garden.jpg
References Ashkenazi, M., & Jacob, J. (2003). Food culture in Japan. Westport: Greenwood Press. Kato, Y., Ikehara, S., Maruyama, K., Inagawa, M., Oshima, M., Yokota, K., et al. (2009). Trends in dietary intakes of vitamins A, C and E among Japanese men and women from 1974 to 2001. Public Health Nutrition, 12 (9), 1343-1353. Kittler, P. G., & Sucher, K. P. (2008). In Food and culture: fifth edition (pp. 334-345). Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth. Liu, C., & Russell, R. M. (2008). Nutrition and gastric cancer risk: an update. Nutrition Reviews, 66 (5), 237-249. Moriyama, N. (2005). Japanese women don't get old or fat: secrest of my mother's Tokyo kitchen. New York: Bantam Dell. Nagura, J., Iso, H., Watanabe, Y., Maruyama, K., Date, C., Toyoshima, H., et al. (2009). Fruit, vegetable and bean intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women: the JACC study. Journal of Nutrition, 102 (2), 285-292. Nakamura, Y., Ueshima, H., Okamura, T., Kadowaki, T., Hayakawa, T., Kita, Y., et al. (2009). A Japanese diet and 19-year mortality: national integrated project for prospective observation of non-communicable diseases and its trends in the aged. British Journal of Nutrition, 101 (11), 1696-1705. Ngoan, L., Mizoue, T., Fujino, Y., Tokui, N., & Yoshimura, T. (2002). Dietary factors and stomach cancer mortality. British Journal of Cancer, 87 (1), 37-42. Sakamoto, N., & Yang, L. (2009). BMI centile curves for Japanese children aged 5-17 years in 2000-2005. Public Health Nutrition, 12 (10), 1688-1692. Sakurai, M., Miura, K., Takamura, T., Ishizaki, M., Morikawa, Y., Nakamura, K., et al. (2009). J-shaped relationship between waist circumference and subsequent risk for Type 2 diabetes: an 8-year follow-up of relatively lean Japanese individuals. Diabetic Medicine, 26 (8), 753-759. Sonoda, T., Nagata, Y., Mori, M., Miyanaga, N., Takashima, N., Okumura, K., et al. (2004). A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Japan: possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet. Cancer Science, 95 (3), 238-242. Suzuki, E., Yorifuji, T., Takao, S., Komatsu, H., Sugiyama, M., Ohta, T., et al. (2009). Green tea consumption and mortality among Japanese elderly people: the prospective Shizuoka elderly cohort. Annals of Epidemiology, 19 (10), 732-739. Thompson Higher Education. (2009). Diet Analysis Plus
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