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Nutrition: The Nutrients

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1 Nutrition: The Nutrients
Chapter 7 Nutrition: The Nutrients

2 Chapter 7 Glossary terms

3 Chapter 7 Glossary Nutrients- Compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning. Nutrient Deficiencies- Too little of one or more nutrients in the diet. Malnutrition- Results of the body of poor nutrition. Undernutrition- Too little food energy or too few nutrients in the diet to prevent disease or to promote growth. Overnutrition- Too much food energy or excess nutrients to the degree of causing disease or increasing risk of disease. Carbohydrate- Class of nutrients made of sugars; these nutrients include sugar, starch, and fiber. Fat- Class of nutrients that doesn’t mix with water. Fat is mostly made up of fatty acids, which provide energy to the body. Protein- Protein Class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. Made up of amino acids. Vitamins- Essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body. Minerals- Elements of the Earth needed in the diet, which perform many functions in body tissues. Energy- Capacity to do work or produce heat Glucose- Body’s blood sugar; a simple carbohydrate.

4 Chapter 7 Glossary Fatty Acids- Simple forms of fat that supply energy fuel for most of the body’s cells. Amino Acids- Simple forms of fat of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy Toxin- A poison Calories- Units used to measure energy. Calories indicate how much energy can be used by the body or stored in body fat. Glycogen- Form in which the liver and muscles store glucose. Hypothalamus- Brain regulatory system. Balanced Meal- Meal with foods to provide the right amounts of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Digestion- Breaking down of food into nutrients the body can use. Starch- Carbohydrate, main food energy source for human beings. Fiber- indigestible substances in foods, made mostly of carbohydrate. Sugars- Carbohydrates found in both food and in the body. Constipation- Hard, slow stools that are difficult to eliminate; often a result of too little fiber in the diet. Hemorrhoids- Swollen painful rectal veins; often the result of constipation.

5 Chapter 7 Glossary Rectum- Last part of the digestive tract, through which stools are eliminated. Empty Calories- Popular term referring to foods that contribute much energy but too little of the food nutrients. Saturated- Concerning fats and health, those fats associated strongly with heart and artery disease: mainly fats from animal sources. Unsaturated- Concerning fats and heath, fats less associated with heart and artery disease; mainly fats from plant sources. Polyunsaturated- Type of unsaturated fat especially useful as a replacement for saturated fat in a heart-healthy diet. Cholesterol- Type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat ion foods Grams- Units of weight in which many nutrients are measured. Essential Amino Acids- Amino acids that are needed but cannot be made by the body; must be eaten in foods Vegetarians- People who omit meat, fish, and poultry from their diet. Supplement- Pill, powder, liquid, or the like containing only nutrients. Deficiency- Too little of a nutrient in the body. Fat-Soluble- Chemist’s term meaning “able to dissolve in fat.”

6 Chapter 7 Glossary Water-Soluble- Able to dissolve in water.
Night Blindness- Slow recovery of vision after flashes of bright light at night; early symptom of vitamin A deficiency. Antioxidant- Chemical that can stop the destructive chain reaction of free radicals. Beta-Carotene- Orange vegetable pigment that the body can change into the active form of vitamin A. Free Radicals- Chemicals that can harm the body’s tissues by starting destructive chain reactions in the molecules of the body. Osteoporosis- Disease of gradual bone loss, which can cripple people in later life. Anemia- Reduced number or size of the red blood cells. Trace Minerals- Minerals essential in nutrition, needed in small quantities daily. Electrolytes- Minerals that carry electrical charges that help maintain the body’s fluid balance. Salt- Compound made of minerals that, in water, dissolve and form electrolytes. Hypertension- High blood pressure. Urine- Fluid wastes removed from the body by the kidneys.

7 Chapter 7 Section 1 Benefits of Nutrition

8 Chapter 7 , Section 1 Good nutrition helps people stay strong , fit and healthy. Overnutrition and undernutrition are equally dangerous to your health. Undernutrition is the lack of nutrients your body needs to survive. Overnutrition on the other hand is too many nutrients or foods . Too help with your bodies nutrition you can follow these dietary guidelines

9 Chapter 7 , Section 1 1 . Eat a variety of foods.
2. Balance the food you eat with physical activity. 3. Choose a diet with plenty of grain products , vegetables and fruits 4. Choose a diet low in fat , saturated fat and cholesterol 5. Choose a diet moderate in sugars 6. Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium.

10 Chapter 7 Section 1 review questions

11 Chapter 7 Section Review Questions
1: Write a sentence using each term. 2: Explain the difference between over and under nutrition. 3: List three benefits of good nutrition. 4: List the 6 dietary guidelines for Americans

12 How to choose Nutritious Foods
Chapter 7 Section 2 How to choose Nutritious Foods

13 Chapter 7 , Section 2 The best possible way to avoid over eating calories and still meet your bodies nutrient needs is to follow the food guide pyramid. Have 6 servings of bread, cereal , rice , and pasta group. Three from the vegetables group. Two servings from the fruit group. Two servings from the diary group. Two servings from the meat , poultry , fish , dry beans , eggs , and nuts group.

14 Chapter 7 Section 2 review questions

15 Chapter 7 Section 2 Review Questions
1: Write a sentence using each term. 2: What is the best possible way to meet all the bodies nutritious needs? 3: How can you avoid consuming large amounts of calories and still meet the bodies nutritious needs? 4: From which food group should you eat 6 servings?

16 Chapter 7 Section 3 Energy from Food

17 Chapter 7 , Section 3 Calories are used to measure energy.
Energy is the ability to produce heat Your body draws glucose from the calories you do not use. Glucose is the bodies sugar storage. When you are hungry your appetite sends out the hunger signal. Protein is your bodies blood sugar. Carbohydrates are simple forms of protein.

18 Chapter 7 , Section 3 The number of calories effects how much glucose . If u eat too many , your body will store more than needed. The body taps into the stored glucose if you do not get enough from the foods you eat. A balanced meal is the best source of energy for the body because you get all the needed nutrients and plenty of calories without over doing it.

19 Chapter 7 section 3 review questions

20 Chapter 7 Section 3 Review Questions
What are the units used to measure energy in food ? What is the bodies storage form of sugar called? The (blank) sends out the hunger signal. (blank) is the bodies blood sugar. The capacity to produce heat or do work is (blank). (blank) are simple forms of protein.

21 Chapter 7 Section 3 Review Questions
Explain how the number of calories in a food reflects its fattening power. How does the body meet its glucose need if you have not eaten? Why is a balanced meal considered the best source of energy for the body?

22 Chapter 7 section 4 The Carbohydrates

23 Chapter 7 , Section 4 Fibers are not a source of energy for the body. Your body is unable to digest them. Which if you eat too much of can lead to constipation . Also trying to pass the hard stools created by constipation may lead to hemorrhoids. Foods that contribute many calories but not many nutrients contain fats. But fibers aren’t always bad , just too many can hurt , if you limit your fibers it helps strengthen your digestive tract.

24 Chapter 7 Section 4 review questions

25 Section 4 Review Questions
1: Explain the relationship between fiber and composition. 2: What does fiber have to do with hemorrhoids? 3: Foods that contribute a lot of calories but insufficient nutrients contain (blank). 4: Explain the effect of starchy foods on brain functioning. 5: Why is it beneficial to obtain adequate amounts of fiber in your diet?

26 Chapter 4 Section 4 Review Questions
6: What danger is there in consuming large amounts of sugar? 7: Give 2 examples of each . Foods in carbohydrates , foods in fiber , foods in high sugar.

27 Chapter 7 Section 5 The Fats

28 Chapter 7 , Section 5 There are two different types of fats. Saturated and Unsaturated fat. Saturated fats come from animals and are associated with the heart. Unsaturated come from plants are a associated with arteries. Your body digests these and you get your nutrients from them . Nutrients are measured in grams. The man function of fat in the body is to provide glucose.

29 Chapter 7 , Section 5 Three steps you can take to control the amount of fat in your diet. Choose lean meats with no visible fats. Don’t choose fried foods. Trim all the fat you can see on your meat.

30 Chapter 7 section 5 review questions

31 Chapter 7 Section 5 Review Questions
1: What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? 2: A type of fat made from saturated fats is..? 3: Many nutrients are measured in…? 4: What is fats main function ? 5: List benefits of limiting fats in your diet 6: List steps in controlling the fat in your diet. 7: why should nutrient %’s be averaged? 8:What info is given by daily values on food labels?

32 Chapter 7 section 6 Protein

33 Chapter 7 , Section 6 Proteins main use in the body is to supply amino acids. Meats and Wheat are good sources of protein. One sign of protein deficiencies are lack of essential amino acids and bone loss.

34 Chapter 7 section6 review questions

35 Chapter 7 Section 6 Review Questions
1: Write a sentence using each glossary term. 2: What is the function of protein in the body? 3: What foods are the best sources of protein? 4: What are some signs of protein deficiency?

36 Chapter 7 Section 7 Vitamins

37 Chapter 7 , Section 7 Two classes of vitamins are Water soluble and fat soluble. Water soluble are able to dissolve in water. Fat are able to dissolve in fat. Powdered pill that contains only vitamins is call a vitamin pill. Deficiency is a lack a of a essential vitamin. If you lack vitamin A you will become blind at night if this continues you could be permanently blinded. Thiamin helps the body get energy from other nutrients.

38 Chapter 7 Section 7 review questions

39 Chapter 7 Section 7 Review Questions
1: Two classes of vitamins are ….? 2: Powdered pill that contains only nutrients is a ….? 3: A (blank) is a condition in which the body lack essential nutrient. 4: What is the difference between a water-soluble and a fat soluble? 5: What is the result of vitamin A deficiency? 6: What vitamin helps the body use energy from other nutrients?

40 Chapter 7 section 8 Minerals

41 Chapter 7 , Section 8 Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bone loss.
Osteoporosis is caused is caused by lack of protein. Anemia is a reduced number of blood cells. This is caused by lack of electrolytes . Electrolytes main function is to keep the fluids running in your body.

42 Chapter 7 section 8 review questions

43 Chapter 7 Section 8 Review Questions
1: Write a sentence using each term. 2: (blank)is a disease of gradual bone loss. 3: (blank) is a condition in which a reduction in the number and size of the red blood cells is seen. 4: Where is most of the bodies calcium stored? 5: List four foods that provide calcium. 6: Give an example of a trace mineral and a food source for that mineral. What is an important function of electrolytes?

44 Chapter 7 review

45 Chapter 7 Review Summarizing the Chapter
List the six Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Discuss the impacts that overnutrition and undernutrition have on the body. Identify the six classes of nutrients. List the types and quantities of nutritious foods suggested for teenagers in the Daily Food Guide. Design a balanced meal. Describe the functions and food sources for carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Estimate your daily fat allowance, and describes some strategies to control the daily amount of fat in your diet.

46 Chapter 7 Review Summarizing the Chapter
Explain why some amino acids are called essential amino acids Describe the differences between fat-soluble and water- soluble vitamins. Identify the essential vitamins, their functions and food sources. Explain the dangers of high doses of vitamins and minerals Identify the vitamins that acts that act as antioxidants in the body, and describe their role in disease prevention. Identify the essential minerals, their functions, and food sources. Discuss the problems associated with a vitamin or mineral deficiency.

47 Chapter 7 Review Matching
The common one contains the mineral sodium Essential nutrients that help release energy from foods Minerals needed only in small amounts daily Minerals that carry electrical charges Sugar, starch, and fiber Breaking down food into nutrients the body can use Fructose Underweight or overweight Not digestible by human beings Explain the difference between the following terms: Calorie and empty calorie Glucose and glycogen

48 Chapter 7 Review 3. Explain the relationship between a supplement and a deficiency 4. a. (blank) is a type of fat made from saturated fats in the body b. People known as (blank) basically eliminate meat, fish, and poultry from their diets c. The last part of the digestive tract is called the (blank) d. Riboflavin, niacin, and thiamin are examples of (blank) e. Calcium, fluoride, and phosphorus are examples of (blank)

49 Chapter 7 Review Recalling Important Facts & Ideas
1. Why do you need to include a wide variety of foods in your diet? 2. Name two groups of people that are prone to nutrient deficiencies and discuss the resulting problem. 3. Plan a meal using the food guide pyramid . 4. Explain while alcohol is not a nutrient. 5. Explain how starchy foods improve the efficiency of the body. 6.Explain how fiber aids the digestive process. 7. What are the 4 sugars that are important in nutrition? 8. List 3 dangers of high fiber diets. 9.What are the recommended %’s for carbohydrate , fat , and protein for a healthy diet. 10 .List 3 types of food information found on a food label.

50 Chapter 7 Review Recalling Facts and Ideas.
11. What is the difference between amino acids and essential amino acids? 12. List 4 foods that are high is protein but low in fat and calories? 13. Explain why excess amounts of fat-soluble vitamins are more dangerous than excess amounts of water soluble vitamins. 14. Why do teenagers diets tend to lack vitamin A? 15. Name the diseases antioxidants are supposed to protect against. 16. What is the most abundant mineral found in the body . 17. How much milk do teenagers need to drink to meet the daily calcium recommendations? 18. What is the major function of iron in the body? 19. Give 2 reasons why a person might be iron deficient. 20. What is the difference between salt and hypertension?

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