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1Brady Jones DeRon Jenkins Courtney Jones The Physiology and Time Factors involved with the Nutrition and Digestion for Athletes: Pre-activity and Post-Activity meals and How to Design MealsBrady JonesDeRon JenkinsCourtney Jones
2The Physiology of Digestion The Digestive TractDigestive System basicsOrgans of the GI TractMouthEsophagusStomachSmall intestineLarge IntestineAnd Some accessory organs (Gallbladder, Pancreas, Etc.)
3Purpose of the GI Tract Nutrition The Science of how living organisms obtain and use food to support the process required for life.The Transformation of FoodBreakdown of food through Catabolic PathwaysAbsorbedRebuilds through Anabolic Pathways3 Major types of foodProteinsCarbohydratesLipids
4ProteinsDefined as: A Nitrogen containing Macronutrient made from amino acidsOften called the building blocks of the bodyBasic FunctionsCombined to make muscle, bone, tendons, skin, hair, and other tissuesNutrient transportation and enzyme production2 typesComplete-(Includes all 8 of the essential amino acids)Incomplete-(lacks one or more essential amino acid)
5Proteins (Cont.) Athletic Need for Protein Athletes need protein primarily to repair and rebuild muscle that is broken down during exercise and to help optimizes carbohydrate storage in the form of glycogenProtein isn’t an ideal source of fuel for exercise, but can be used when the diet lacks adequate carbohydrateThis is detrimental, though, because if used for fuel, there isn’t enough available to repair and rebuild body tissues, including muscle.
6CarbohydratesDefined as: An organic Compound made up of varying number of Monosaccharides.Carbs are arguably the most important source of engery for athletesNo Matter what SportCarbs Provide energy for muscle contraction
7Carbohydrates (Cont.) Pathway of Carbs Once eaten, carbohydrates breakdown into smaller sugars (glucose, fructose and galactose) that get absorbed and used as energyAny glucose not needed right away gets stored in the muscles and the liver in the form of glycogenOnce these glycogen stores are filled up, any extra gets stored as fat.Primary Source of energy for ExerciseGlycogenShort Intense Burst of energy (Sprinting, Weight Lifting) because it is immediately accessible
8Carbohydrates (Cont.) For Long endurance based activity Glycogen is used as well as FatAdequate carbohydrate intake also helps prevent protein from being used as energyReplenishing the Energy StoresIf we don’t replenish the stores we can run out of fuel for immediate exerciseReferred to as “Hitting the Wall”Carb-LoadingIs a planned, well-timed depletion and Intake of high level of carbohydrates before a competition
9LipidsDefined as: An Organic Substance that is relatively insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents.Negative ConnotationEssential to optimal HealthAdipose TissueStored FatProvides cushion for internal OrgansFat provides the highest concentration of energy of all the nutrients
10Lipids (Cont.) 3 types of Dietary Fat Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats This type of fat is often solid at room temperaturefound primarily in animal sources like meat, egg yolks, yogurt, cheese, butter, milkUnsaturated Fatsliquid at room temperaturewhich are typically found in plant food sourcesTrans FatTrans fatty acids are created (naturally or man-made) when an unsaturated fat is made into a solid
11Goals Of Nutritional Care For Athletes Ensure that athletes have adequate fluids during periods of active training and competition.Provide adequate calories to meet growth and development needs (if in youth and adolescent years).Provide calories to meet extra needs of physical activity.Supply nutrients from food.Instill sound nutrition principles and practices that will last a lifetime.
12Good Eating Habits For Athletes Design a meal pattern that fits your daily routine. Plan to eat at least three times a day. Use snacks between regular meals to help meet caloric and nutrient needs.Eat a diet rich in complex carbohydrates (starches). Starchy foods such as pasta, breads, cereals, potatoes, corn, peas and others provide a major energy source to fuel your activities. These foods are also a source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals.Drink sufficient fluids to stay hydrated during training and competition periods - don't wait until you are thirsty to drink.Eat a diet that contains a variety of foods from breads and cereals; fruits; vegetables; meat and meat substitutes, and dairy groups. It is your best insurance for getting needed nutrients.
13Pre-Activity MealA pre-game meal three to four hours before the event allows for optimal digestion and energy supply. Most authorities recommend small pre- game meals that provide 500 to 1,000 calories.High-sugar foods lead to a rapid rise in blood sugar, followed by a decline in blood sugar and less energy. In addition, concentrated sweets can draw fluid into the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to dehydration, cramping, nausea and diarrhea. Don't consume any carbohydrates one and a half to two hours before an event. This may lead to premature exhaustion of glycogen stores in endurance events.Regardless of age, gender or sport, the pre-game meal recommendations are the same. Following a training session or competition, a small meal eaten within thirty minutes is very beneficial. The meal should be mixed, meaning it contains carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Protein synthesis is greatest during the window of time immediately following a workout and carbohydrates will help replete diminished glycogen stores.
14Pre- Activity Meals Eat lightly before an athletic competition. Eat complex carbohydrates and keep protein and fat intakes low since these are slow with digestion.Avoid bulky foods. They may stimulate bowel movements. Bulky foods include raw fruits and vegetables, dry beans and peas, popcorn.Avoid gas-forming foods such as vegetables from the cabbage family and cooked dry beans.Eat slowly and chew well.
15Pre-Activity Meals Contd. Drink water to be adequately hydrated. One suggestion is to drink 2 1/2 cups water 1 to 2 hours before the event. Follow this by drinking about 1 1/4 cups water 15 minutes before the event.Avoid drastic changes in your normal diet routine immediately prior to competition. Some athletes prefer to use favorite foods which may give them a psychological edge.
16Post Activity MealsEat carbohydrate-rich foods and beverages as soon as possible after competition. They will replenish glycogen stores quickly and get the athlete back into performance shape. Fruits, juices, high carbohydrate drinks, pop are examples.Replace fluids that have been lost. For every pound that is lost, drink 2 cups of fluids.Replace any potassium or sodium that has been lost during competition or training by using foods. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of potassium. Replace sodium by eating salty foods.Return to your normal high carbohydrate diet at your next meal.
17Sample Meal Plan For an Athlete BreakfastMilk, fat-free 12 ounces 125 CaloriesNutty barley cereal 1 cup CaloriesCinnamon raisin bagel 194 CaloriesReduced-calorie margarine 1 tablespoon 50 Calorie Morning snack Granola bar with oats, sugar, raisins and coconut 2 (1 1/2 ounces total) 180 CaloriesGrape juice, unsweetened 12 ounces CaloriesCarrots, baby (12-10) 42 Calories
19Sample Meal Plan Cont. Dinner Salmon, baked 4 ounces 233 Calories Brown rice 1 1/2 cups 337 CaloriesBroccoli, steamed 1 cup 52 CaloriesMilk, fat-free 8 ounces 84 CaloriesLettuce salad with tomatoes and carrots 1 1/4 cups 16 CaloriesLow-calorie Italian salad dressing 2 tablespoons 15 Cal. Walnuts 1/4 cup 196 Calories Evening snack Banana 105 CaloriesFig bars 110 CaloriesFrozen yogurt, fat-free (not chocolate) 1 1/2 cups 285 CaloriesTotal Calories for the day: 3,948
20Fun FactDuring Michael Phelps’ run for 8 gold medals he ate 12,000 calories a day. Here is his meal regimen.Breakfast: Three fried-egg sandwiches loaded with cheese, lettuce, tomatoes, fried onions and mayonnaise. Two cups of coffee. One five-egg omelet. One bowl of grits. Three slices of French toast topped with powdered sugar. Three chocolate-chip pancakes.Lunch: One pound of enriched pasta. Two large ham and cheese sandwiches with mayo on white bread. Energy drinks packing 1,000 calories.Dinner: One pound of pasta. An entire pizza. More energy drinks
21Ideal Meal No Two people are going to have the same Ideal Meal Factors Types of ActivityEndurance Vs. StrengthAthletes Body compositionType of AthletesEndurance (Marathon Runner, Swimmers, Etc)Strength (Sprinters, Power lifters, Etc)