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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Karl Byrand, University of Wisconsin-Sheboygan Contemporary Human Geography, 2e Lectures Chapter 10 Food and Agriculture.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Karl Byrand, University of Wisconsin-Sheboygan Contemporary Human Geography, 2e Lectures Chapter 10 Food and Agriculture."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Karl Byrand, University of Wisconsin-Sheboygan Contemporary Human Geography, 2e Lectures Chapter 10 Food and Agriculture

2 10.1 O RIGIN OF A GRICULTURE Agriculture Deliberate modification of Earths surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain Crop Any plant cultivated by people © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 10.1 O RIGIN OF A GRICULTURE Hunters and gatherers Small groups Male–female division of labor Daily food gathering Mobility Only ~250,000 today © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 10.1 O RIGIN OF A GRICULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. HUNTERS AND GATHERERS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 10.1 O RIGIN OF A GRICULTURE Crop hearths Early centers of domestication © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. CROP HEARTHS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 10.1 O RIGIN OF A GRICULTURE Animal hearths © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 10.1 O RIGIN OF A GRICULTURE Why agriculture originated Environmental factors Cultural factors © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 10.2 D IET Factors affecting food consumption Level of development Physical conditions Cultural preferences Total consumption of food Kilocalories Most derived from grains © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 10.2 D IET © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. DIETARY ENERGY BY SOURCE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 10.2 D IET © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. WHEAT CONSUMPTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 10.2 D IET © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. RICE CONSUMPTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 10.2 D IET © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. MAIZE CONSUMPTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 10.2 D IET © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. YAM CONSUMPTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 10.2 D IET Sources of nutrients Protein © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. PROTEIN BY SOURCE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 10.2 D IET © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. MEAT CONSUMPTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 10.2 D IET © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. PROTEIN FROM MEAT © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER Dietary energy needs Needed average kcals: 1,800 kcals/day Average global consumption: 2,780 kcals/day © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. DIETARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. HIGH CALORIE CONSUMPTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. INCOME SPENT ON FOOD © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER Undernourishment Is dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. EXTENT OF UNDERNOURISEMENT © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. SHARE OF WORLDS 800 MILLION UNDERNOURISHED PEOPLE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. CHANGE IN NUMBER UNDERNOURISHED © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. UNDERNOURISHMENT © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER Africas food-supply struggle Struggle to keep food production ahead of population growth Food production per capita has changed very little in a half-century © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 10.3 N UTRITION AND H UNGER © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. POPULATION AND FOOD PRODUCTION IN AFRICA © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 10.4 A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Subsistence agriculture Practiced in developing countries Provides food for direct consumption for farmer and family Commercial agriculture Practiced in developed countries Generates a surplus for sale off the farm to food- processing companies © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 10.4 A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 10.4 A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 10.4 A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 10.4 A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. MIXED CROP AND LIVESTOCK © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

33 10.5 C OMPARING S UBSISTENCE AND C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE Farm size Commercial agriculture Larger Smaller number of farms Mechanization Largest amounts of capital © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 10.5 C OMPARING S UBSISTENCE AND C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE Percentage of farmers in society Developed countries ~5 percent engaged in agriculture Developing countries ~50 percent engaged in agriculture © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 10.5 C OMPARING S UBSISTENCE AND C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. LABOR FORCE ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 10.5 C OMPARING S UBSISTENCE AND C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE Use of machinery Developed countries Heavy reliance on machinery rather than people or animals Mass-produced farm machinery Transportation aids commercial food distributions Scientific advances to increase productivity Electronics GPS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 10.5 C OMPARING S UBSISTENCE AND C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. FARMLAND PER TRACTOR © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 10.5 C OMPARING S UBSISTENCE AND C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. USE OF MACHINERY © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

39 10.6 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Shifting cultivation Slash-and-burn agriculture Swidden, Milpa, ladang, chena, Kaingin © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 10.6 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. SHIFTING CULTIVATION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 10.6 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Pastoral nomadism Herding of domesticated animals Adapted to dry climates © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

42 10.6 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. PASTORAL NOMADISM © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

43 10.6 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Intensive subsistence Practiced in areas with high agricultural densities © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

44 10.6 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. RICE PRODUCTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 10.6 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE FARMING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

46 10.6 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Plantation agriculture Plantation Form of commercial agriculture in developing regions that specializes in one or two crops © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 10.6 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. SUGARCANE PLANTATION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Mixed crop and livestock Corn most common crop © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

49 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. MAIZE (CORN) PRODUCTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Dairy farming Milkshed The ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

51 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. MILK PRODUCTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

52 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. MILK PRODUCTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Grain farming Primarily for human consumption Located in regions that are too dry for mixed crop and livestock farming Example: Great Plains of North America © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

54 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. WHEAT PRODUCTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

55 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Livestock ranching Ranching: Commercial grazing of agriculture over an extensive area Primarily practiced on arid or semi-arid lands Contemporary ranching part of meat-processing industry © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. MEAT PRODUCTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Commercial gardening and fruit farming Truck farming Predominant agriculture type in U.S. Southeast Specialty Farming: Farmers grow crops that have limited but increasing demand © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. COMMERCIAL GARDENING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

59 10.7 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE R EGIONS Mediterranean agriculture Exists on lands that border the Mediterranean Sea and other places that share a similar physical geography Two most important crops: olives and grapes © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

60 10.8 F ISHING Fish production Aquaculture (aquafarming) The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

61 10.8 F ISHING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. AQUACULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

62 10.8 F ISHING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. FISH PRODUCTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

63 10.8 F ISHING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. FISHING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

64 10.8 F ISHING Fish consumption In past half century fish consumption has doubled worldwide Tripled in developing countries © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

65 10.8 F ISHING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. MAJOR FISHING REGIONS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

66 10.8 F ISHING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. FISH CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

67 10.8 F ISHING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. PERCENT PROTEIN FROM FISH © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

68 10.8 F ISHING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. EMPLOYMENT IN FISHING AND AQUACULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

69 10.8 F ISHING Overfishing The capturing of fish faster than they can reproduce 90 percent reduction in some fish species © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

70 10.9 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE AND P OPULATION G ROWTH Strategies for increasing food producti vity Expand agricultural land 11 percent of worlds land used for agriculture Excessive or inadequate water makes expansion difficulty. Expansion of agricultural land much slower than the increase of the human population. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

71 10.9 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE AND P OPULATION G ROWTH © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. AGRICULTURAL LAND AND POPULATION GROWTH © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

72 10.9 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE AND P OPULATION G ROWTH Strategies for increasing food productivity (cont.) Increase agricultural productivity Green Revolution technologies Norman Borlaug Green Revolution responsible for preventing a food crisis in developing countries in 1970s and 1980s. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

73 10.9 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE AND P OPULATION G ROWTH © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE, HOME OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

74 10.9 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE AND P OPULATION G ROWTH Strategies for increasing food productivity (cont.) Improve food sources Higher protein cereal grains Palatability of rarely consumed goods © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

75 10.9 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE AND P OPULATION G ROWTH © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. SOY PRODUCT © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

76 10.9 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE AND P OPULATION G ROWTH Strategies for increasing food productivity (cont.) Expand exports Expand exports: trade in food has increased since Three top export grains: wheat, corn, rice. Four leading net exporters: Argentina, Brazil, the Netherlands, and the United States. Four leading net importers: Japan, China, Russia, and the United Kingdom. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

77 10.9 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE AND P OPULATION G ROWTH © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. WORLD FOOD EXPORTS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

78 10.9 S UBSISTENCE A GRICULTURE AND P OPULATION G ROWTH © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

79 10.10 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE M ARKET F ORCES Agribusiness The system of commercial farming found in the developed countries Von ThÜnen model explains importance of proximity to market in the choice of crops on commercial farms. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

80 10.10 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE M ARKET F ORCES © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. VONTHÜNEN MODEL © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

81 10.10 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE M ARKET F ORCES Productivity challenges Increased yield per cow (dairy farming) has tripled. Surplus leads to low incomes. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

82 10.10 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE M ARKET F ORCES © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. DAIRY COWS © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

83 10.10 C OMMERCIAL A GRICULTURE M ARKET F ORCES Government subsidies Farmers are encouraged to produce crops that are in excess supply. Government pays farmers when certain commodity prices are low. Government buys surplus production. Sells or donates it Developed countries: encouraged to grow less food Developing countries: struggle to increase food production © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

84 10.11 S USTAINABLE A GRICULTURE Agricultural practice that preserves and enhances environmental quality. Sustainable agriculture and organic farming Rely on sensitive land management © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

85 10.11 S USTAINABLE A GRICULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. SHAR E OF THE WORLDS ORGANIC FARMING © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

86 10.11 S USTAINABLE A GRICULTURE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. FARMLAND IN ORGANIC FARMING IN EUROPE © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

87 10.11 S USTAINABLE A GRICULTURE Sensitive land management Ridge tillage System of planting crops on ridgetops © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

88 10.11 S USTAINABLE A GRICULTURE Limited use of chemicals Integrated crop and livestock Head size and distribution Animal confinement Management in extreme weather Flexible feeding and marketing © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

89 C HAPTER R EVIEW Key Questions What do people eat? How is agriculture distributed? What challenges does agriculture face? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


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