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Traditional foods: functional properties and perspectives Diana Di Gioia Department of Agricultural Sciences University of Bologna – Italy Tampere, 1.7.2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Traditional foods: functional properties and perspectives Diana Di Gioia Department of Agricultural Sciences University of Bologna – Italy Tampere, 1.7.2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Traditional foods: functional properties and perspectives Diana Di Gioia Department of Agricultural Sciences University of Bologna – Italy Tampere,

2 University of Bologna Department of Agricultural Sciences

3 Content The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients The health image of TFs: the role of microorganisms Challenges and perspectives of the TF sector The aim is to give a brief overview of the functional properties of traditional foods (TFs)

4 The Mediterranean diet

5 Trichopoulou et al., (2005), BMJ, 330,

6 Secondary plant metabolites eliciting pharmacological or toxicological effects in man and animals Primary metabolic routes (biosyntetic pathway) Carbohydrates, aminoacids, protein and lipids Secondary metabolic routes (special metabolism) Small molecules not needed for daily functioning of the plants They are not useless ! Bioactive compounds in plants The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients

7 7 Wounding cholorogenic acid coumarins lignin Dixon & Paiva, The plant cell, 1995, 7; Low Nitrogen flavonoids isoflavonoids UV Light anthocyanidins flavonols/ flavones psoralens Pathogen Attack isoflavones coumarins flavonols stilbenes Low Phosphate anthocyanidins Low Iron phenolic acids

8 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients Secondary plant metabolites can have a beneficial effect in humans: some examples …. carotenoids polyphenols The antioxidant activity of bioactive plant metabolites is the main reason of their beneficial effects

9 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients Free radicals Reactive oxygen species

10 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients Example of chain reaction

11 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients RO + AH ROH + A antioxidant Free radical with a low affinity for cellular molecules NO CHAIN PROPAGATION

12 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients Carotenoids Provitamin A activity: Vitamin A is produced within the body from β-carotene Antioxidant activity (lycopene) prevention of age-related macular degeneration (lutein) enhancement of the immune system function carotenesxanthophylls

13 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients Polyphenols phenolic acids flavonoidslignans stilbenes group of molecules characterized by aromatic rings and several hydroxyl groups widely distributed in plants

14 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients 14 p-coumaric acid is found in tomatoes, carrots and garlic. It has antioxidant properties (lower risk of stomach cancer) caffeic acid occurs in fruits, grains and vegetables ferulic acid is the most abundant fenolic acid in cereal grains (wheat and maize) Phenolic acids Hydrobenzoic acids Cinnamic acids

15 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients 15 They are ubiquitous in the human diet and are found in fruits, vegetables and grains. to boost the immune sytem to protect body from free radicals to kill pathogenic microorganisms to decrease the risk of cancer Flavonoids in food are generally considered to be beneficial to consumers' health and are one of the most important categories of bioactive food components. Epidemiological observations ascribed to flavonoids: Flavonoids

16 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients 16 anti-inflammatory activity anti-oxidant activity protective effect against estrogen-related disease such as osteoporosis anti-cancer properties (reduced incidence rate of breast, prostate and colon cancer) Lignans flaxseed; cereals (triticale and wheat), leguminous plants (lentils, soybean), fruit (pears, prunes), vegetables (asparagus, carrots)

17 The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients 17 antioxidant activity prevention of cardiovascular disease: the French Paradox (attenuation of coronary hearth disease in wine drinkers) prevention of ischemic damage inhibition of the development of cancer and extended lifespan in cell culture and animal cell models Stilbenes

18 It is recognized that highly-intensive agricultural practices (conventional farming) may reduce the natural production of secondary metabolites involved in plant defense; Under organic farming conditions, plants are easily subjected to stress conditions elicitation effects on secondary metabolites increment in functional compounds. The health image of TFs: the role of plant ingredients Functional compounds and organic farming

19 The health image of TFs: the role of microorganisms 19 Beneficial bacteria in the food chain can have: BIOPRESERVATION a protective role (protective cultures), to reduce the growth of pathogenic and/or spoilage microrganisms in food BIOPRESERVATION a probiotic role (probiotic cultures), i.e. conferring a beneficial effect upon the host, either on a farm animal through animal feed, or on humans, through different food products.

20 The health image of TFs: the role of microorganisms 20 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the best candidates for use as protective & probiotic cultures: Have been used since the beginning of history as starter cultures Present in almost all fermented foods-vegetables, meat products, dairy products Are part of the natural microbiota of both farm animals and humans Have a long history of consumption and safe use Lactobacillus LactococcusStreptococcus Pediococcus Oenococcus Bifidobacterium

21 The health image of TFs: the role of microorganisms 21 Relevance of LAB in different fermented food products Wine Cider Sauerkraut Fermented milk Cheese Fermented sausages

22 The health image of TFs: the role of microorganisms 22 Protective cultures: applications in traditional dairy products Yogurt The starter cultures used can be considered protective cultures Starter cultures can also have a role as probiotic cultures Brie Mascarpone Soft Cheese Soft cheeses Control of pathogens such as Listeria spp. Cheddar Pecorino Semi hard & hard cheeses Growth control of undesirable spoilage bacteria Parmiggiano Reggiano

23 The health image of TFs: the role of microorganisms 23 Protective cultures: applications in traditional meat products Beef jerkyBresaola Sausages Control of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteriditis Control of spoilage bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., …..) Ground meatPoultry

24 The health image of TFs: the role of microorganisms Dietary glycosides FlaGlu Aglycones Bacterial hydrolysis Glu Fla Glucosidase Absorption Bioactive form Interaction between probiotics and plant derived functional componds

25 The health image of TFs: the role of microorganisms Gutmicrobiota Bioavailability of dietary flavonoids ability of gut microbiota to degrade these compounds glucosidase activity) Several groups of bacteria possess -glucosidase activity BifidobacteriumLactobacillus Interaction between microorganisms and funtional compounds

26 04812 Time (min) kaempferol 3-O-xylosylglucoside kaempferol 3-O-glucoside kaempferol 7-O-glucoside Flavonoid metabolism: selected bifidobacteria strains incubated with flavonoids extracted from Zolfino bean seeds Kaempferol AFTER incubation with B7003 Kaempferol-3-0-xylosylglucoside The health image of TFs: the role of microorganisms Selected Bifidobacterium strains can be used as probiotic dietary adjuncts to improve the health beneficial effects of flavonoid based products, including common bean food derivatives

27 Challenges and perspectives of the TF sector Innovations in traditional food products are costantly looked for to guarantee the safety of the products (ensuring safety through innovation) improve the nutritional and health properties of the food (link between nutrition and health) Quality innovationsMean values (on a 7 point scale) Reduction of fat content5.29 ± 1.37 Reduction of sugar content5.08 ± 1.36 Reduction of salt content5.08 ± 1.36 Addition of beneficial ingredients5.06 ± 1.33 Using organic raw material5.35 ± 1.36 New processes improving safety5.34 ± 1.22 Consumer acceptance of innovation in TF (Kuhne et al. 2010)

28 Challenges and perspectives of the TF sector 28 Personalized Nutrigenomic Food Age 18th 19th 20th 21th Century Future Value (Technology +Iinformation) Survival food Convenience food Essential nutrients Engineered food Mass production Functional food Chemical analysis Nutraceutical Functional compounds Health claim Nutrigenomic food Molecular nutrition Tailor-made personal food Home-test kits Harmonization of Eastern & Western Health knowledge Genomics HealthDiet

29 Challenges and perspectives of the TF sector Comparison Personalized Nutrigenetic Food Age Pathologic status Health status TFs Tailor made diet

30 Summary The link between nutrition and health is extremely important for the modern consumer, also in the sector of TRADITIONAL FOODS Plants are an important source of bioactive compounds: they mainly act as antioxidants which prevent biological molecules oxidation Microorganisms have a functional role in foods: they are used both as protective and probiotic cultures Microorganisms have also an important role in the bioavailability of bioactive compounds The link among diet, health and genomics is increasingly being important

31 Thank you


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