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The Importance of Self-Efficacy Outcome Expectation Self-Efficacy High Low High Low From Self-Efficacy in Human Agency by A. Bandura, 1982 Social Activism.

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Presentation on theme: "The Importance of Self-Efficacy Outcome Expectation Self-Efficacy High Low High Low From Self-Efficacy in Human Agency by A. Bandura, 1982 Social Activism."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Importance of Self-Efficacy Outcome Expectation Self-Efficacy High Low High Low From Self-Efficacy in Human Agency by A. Bandura, 1982 Social Activism Protest Grievance Milieu Change Assured, Opportune Action High Cognitive Engagement Resignation Apathy Withdrawal Self-devaluation Depression

2 Forum Theatre Augusto Boal ( ) If you can change one character, you change the whole system. - Augusto Boal

3 Forum Theatre 1) The presentation of a model play, which introduces a central character around whom the action revolves (the protagonist) and who is confronted with a challenging situation represented by another character (the antagonist). 2) The protagonist is the person who is most intimately affected by the central conflict. 3) The antagonist is the character who prevents the protagonist from getting what she/he desires, through an abuse of power (for example, a parent, teacher, partner, doctor). 4) The story ends badly, without a solution to the problem. The failure and defeat the protagonist experiences must not be presented as the consequence of fate but rather as the result of an error of judgment or behavior or a bad situation for which solutions can nevertheless be found. If the situation presented in the play were resolved, then there would be no reason to become involved. The overall purpose of Forum Theatre is to present a problem and to open the door for the audience to find solutions. 1) The presentation of a model play, which introduces a central character around whom the action revolves (the protagonist) and who is confronted with a challenging situation represented by another character (the antagonist). 2) The protagonist is the person who is most intimately affected by the central conflict. 3) The antagonist is the character who prevents the protagonist from getting what she/he desires, through an abuse of power (for example, a parent, teacher, partner, doctor). 4) The story ends badly, without a solution to the problem. The failure and defeat the protagonist experiences must not be presented as the consequence of fate but rather as the result of an error of judgment or behavior or a bad situation for which solutions can nevertheless be found. If the situation presented in the play were resolved, then there would be no reason to become involved. The overall purpose of Forum Theatre is to present a problem and to open the door for the audience to find solutions.

4 Forum Theatre 5) Forum Theatre aims to transform passive spectators into active participants, known as Spect-actors. Spect-actors share ideas about issues that concern the community and engage in dialogue about how to create social change. In a Forum Theatre performance, there is an intermediary between the actor and the spectator, called a Joker: someone who liaises between the dramatic world of the characters and the real word of the spectators. She or he encourages the spect-actors and generally helps the play advance through his or her questions and comments.). 6) The phase during which key scenes are repeated and audience members suggest their own new strategies is considered the actual Forum. Moreover, the Forum is the part of the performance in which the audience, the spect-actors, start to intervene in the action, on the second showing and subsequent iterations. 7) The forum unfolds with spect-actors replacing the oppressed character (not the oppressor) in order to show what alternative strategies and attitudes are available for him/her to try on. It may be that there is more than one oppressed character, in which case the forum can focus on finding solutions for both. 8) Through this collective reflection, the protagonist finds a solution to the problem, how to stand up against the oppression or stigma that renders his or her life difficult. The solution results through an action undertaken by the protagonist, through which the antagonist can also grow in consciousness. The idea is that you cannot change the world itself, but you can modify the way you relate and respond to it. 5) Forum Theatre aims to transform passive spectators into active participants, known as Spect-actors. Spect-actors share ideas about issues that concern the community and engage in dialogue about how to create social change. In a Forum Theatre performance, there is an intermediary between the actor and the spectator, called a Joker: someone who liaises between the dramatic world of the characters and the real word of the spectators. She or he encourages the spect-actors and generally helps the play advance through his or her questions and comments.). 6) The phase during which key scenes are repeated and audience members suggest their own new strategies is considered the actual Forum. Moreover, the Forum is the part of the performance in which the audience, the spect-actors, start to intervene in the action, on the second showing and subsequent iterations. 7) The forum unfolds with spect-actors replacing the oppressed character (not the oppressor) in order to show what alternative strategies and attitudes are available for him/her to try on. It may be that there is more than one oppressed character, in which case the forum can focus on finding solutions for both. 8) Through this collective reflection, the protagonist finds a solution to the problem, how to stand up against the oppression or stigma that renders his or her life difficult. The solution results through an action undertaken by the protagonist, through which the antagonist can also grow in consciousness. The idea is that you cannot change the world itself, but you can modify the way you relate and respond to it.

5 Forum Theatre 1) To see the situation as experienced by the participants. 2) To analyze the root causes of the situation, including both internal and external sources of oppression, exploitation and cruelty. 3) To explore group solutions to these problems. 4) To act to change the situation following the precepts of social justice. The ultimate goal of Forum Theatre is to help prepare the individual for the future as an active participant, rather than as a passive observer. Augusto Boal wrote of Forum Theatre, Dramatic action throws light upon real action. The spectacle is a preparation for action.

6 Humane Edutainment in Practice 1.Establish the Community of Inquiry and introduce the foundational question or problem 2.Set the ground rules and begin to develop the basic collaborative and participatory skills 3.Identify and refine potential Triggers 5.Create and refine the activating scenes 6.Conduct the public Forum Theatre 7.Facilitate opportunities for practical reinforcement via service learning 4.Reflect Research Dialogue

7 Humane Edutainment in Practice Trigger I was walking home from school the other day and I happened to see a dog tied with a very short chain to a tree in front of a store in my neighborhood. It was very hot outside and the dog looked thirsty, but as I approached him I noticed his water dish was bone dry and overturned on the sidewalk. The chain was so short that the dog couldnt even lay down and instead had to sit or stand. I had no idea how long the dog had been there, but by the amount of feces scattered around the tree, it looked like he might have been there all day. I felt so bad because the dog was obviously suffering. It was clear that he hadnt eaten or had anything to drink for quite some time. I looked for the shop owner to ask that the dog be given some water, but the shop had several customers in it and he just dismissed me with a wave of his hand, telling me to mind my own business. He wouldnt even acknowledge to me.

8 Activating Scene Humane Edutainment in Practice

9 Forum Theatre Humane Edutainment in Practice

10 The Service Learning Component Reinforcement via Service Learning

11 Does Humane Education work? For a number of reasons, changes in attitudes do not always manifest themselves as behavior. Many of the MOEs we use in Humane Education measure attitudinal change (e.g. PAT or the AHCS). In the absence of being able to directly observe behavior, a more accurate MOE for Humane Education programs may be the assessment of both attitude change and perceptions of self-efficacy.

12 Attitude Scales Strongly Moderately Slightly Agree Slightly Moderately Strongly disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree Question 1: A vegan diet is the kindness diet for both the environment and animals. Question 2: Wearing clothes made from animals is wrong. Question 3: Testing personal care or beauty products on animals is wrong. Attitude Scale * For demonstration of concepts only – not validated

13 Self-Efficacy Scales Please rate how certain you feel you can do each of the things described below by writing the appropriate number in the blank space to the right of the statement Cannot ModeratelyHighly Certain do at all certain can do can do Vegan Diet 1.Eat a vegan diet at least 3 days a week. 2.Eat a vegan diet at least 5 days a week. 3.Eat a vegan diet at least 7 days a week. 4.Persuasively explain my reasons to friends and family members if questioned about my vegan diet. 5.Persuasively explain my reasons to strangers if questioned about my vegan diet. 6.Actively advocate a vegan diet to stranger who might be interested. 7.Actively advocate a vegan diet to stranger who are critical. Clothing 1.No longer purchase clothing made from animals. 2.Throw or give away clothing made from animals. Animal Testing 1.No longer purchase personal care or beauty products that were tested on animals 2.Throw or give away personal care or beauty products that were tested on animals. * For demonstration of concepts only – not validated Self-Efficacy Scale Self-Efficacy Scale

14 Conclusion Strategies, tools and methods used to deliver Humane Education must be appropriate for achieving the desired outcomes. Reflective and Dialogical inquiry supported by observational learning and personal experience can provide effective ways to foster new behaviors, especially for behaviors that students are not likely to initiate voluntarily. Students must believe they are capable of accomplishing these new behaviors…that is, they must possess high self-efficacy…or they often wont even attempt new behaviors even if they are favorably pre-disposed towards them. Students must have help setting realistic expectations (outcomes) for new behaviors so that they do not suffer the results of failing to meet unrealistic goals. Success must be reinforced by recognition and other confidence-building measures. Assessment needs to measure not just changes in attitudinal dispositions, but also relative levels of self-efficacy if we really want indicators of the likelihood of behaving more humanely rather than just feeling more humane.

15 Thank You!


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