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Getting Through the Mire of Fad Diets Susan Woods, MS, RD/LD Consultant Doctoral Student, OUHSC.

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Presentation on theme: "Getting Through the Mire of Fad Diets Susan Woods, MS, RD/LD Consultant Doctoral Student, OUHSC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Getting Through the Mire of Fad Diets Susan Woods, MS, RD/LD Consultant Doctoral Student, OUHSC

2 Objectives Understand why are Fad diets so popular Understand the Problems with Fad Diets Be able to quickly evaluate a diet as Fad/Bad Guide clients in the right direction

3 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% 30% Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 2000, 2010 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 54 person) Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC

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5 Why do People Even Consider a Fad Diet? Few people WANT to be overweight Quick & easy fix Whatever theyve been doing isnt working Solutions are drastic

6 Why do People consider Fad Diets? (contd) It takes 3500 kcalories to lose one pound of fat Weight in pounds x 25 kcals = kcals to 2.2 kgmaintain weight 20 – signif overweight/or sedentary 25 – average activity 30 – moderately active 35 – active

7 Vicious Cycle Im fat and unhappy I want to be happy If I lose weight, my life will be great! Ill try something drastic I just cant stick with this; Im a failure

8 Whats the problem with Fad Diets? Fad diets are short-term solutions; they dont address the long-term problems Initial, quick loss may be only water/fluid They are probably not nutritionally adequate; usually eliminate or limit a food group They get expensive – you need to buy a product

9 Whats the Problem? (contd) Its hard on the body – missing nutrients, restrictive kcalories Its hard on the clients motivation – short term success & then regain

10 Typical Characteristics of Fad Diets Sounds too good to be true (lose 25# in 1 month) May require an expensive supplement or specialty food products Restrict at least one food group or nutrient Have requirements that the dieter can only tolerate following for a short period of time May discourage exercise Bases evidence for effectiveness only on quotes from other dieters

11 Gluten-Free Negatives: Only works if client has gluten- sensitivity, may restrict fiber, can be expensive, may involve a significant amount of cooking from scratch Positive: may encourage people to eat more fruits and vegetables Example: South Beach Diet Gluten Solution, Wheat Belly Diet

12 Least Processed Foods Negative: May be too difficult for most people to do on a regular basis -> eventual noncompliance Positive: encourages people to eat less processed food Examples: Paleo Diet (Caveman), Ultimate Weight Solution Diet

13 Low Carb Negative: restricts fruit, milk/dairy, some vegetables & grains Positive: quick results, discourages refined grain products, less kcalorie restriction Examples: Atkins (older version), South Beach, 4-Hour Body, The Dukan Diet, The Ultimate New York Diet

14 Glycemic Index Theory – eating low glycemic index foods decreases blood sugar & hunger Problem – how do clients know glycemic index of every food; once food is mixed with others at meal, the overall GIndex changes Examples – Glucose Revolution, NutriSystem, The Bread for Life Diet

15 Severely Low Fat Severely Decrease animal & vegetable fat in diet Problems – may provide inadequate essential fatty acids Examples: Ornish Diet

16 Vegetarian Diet Positive – has been associated with decrease: obesity, cancer, heart disease & blood pressure Negative – may not get all essential amino acids, difficult for some to adhere to Examples: Vegan, Aggregate Nutrient Density Index (ANDI), Vegan Before 6pm

17 Body Confusion By changing plans, your diet creates body confusion, resulting in weight loss (may be based on same theory as changing exercise) Examples: The 17 Day Diet, The FastDiet (eat 25% for 2 days/week), The 4 Day Diet

18 Plans Perceived as Confusing The plan is usually so intricate that most dieters will eventually give up due to the time it takes to follow Examples: The Zone, You on a Diet, The Sonoma Diet, Ultra-Metabolism

19 Pills Alli (Orlistat) Claim – with Alli & a healthy diet, for every 2# lost thru diet & exercise, Alli will help you increase that to 3# can cause GI upset, diarrhea only works if diet has moderate amount of fat, may cause malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins Others – usually do not use science but reported results to attract buyers

20 Supplements Chromium – supports a healthy glucose level & carb metabolism Raspberry Ketones – no scientific evidence to support use HCG (human chorionic gonadatropin/ produced during pregnancy) – expensive, highly restrictive in kcalories, discourages exercise

21 Supplements - caffeine General – is a stimulant that can support increased metabolism Green Coffee Extract – claim: may encourage metabolism of fat; also contains caffeine; chlorgenic acids may be a source of antioxidants Green Tea – may support healthy glucose levels & metabolism Guarana – South American fruit containing high levels of caffeine

22 Surgery Stomach or Bowel Resectioning Negative: very restrictive in type of food that can be eaten at first, eventually client may find ways to intake kcalories (milkshakes, etc), risk of infection Positive: clients enjoy rapid weight loss

23 Systems Negative: dont always teach LONG-TERM changes, can be expensive, high drop-out rate Positive: pulls people out of poor eating habits, usually meets standard nutrition recommendations Examples: Weight Watchers, NutriSystem, Biggest Loser, Jenny Craig

24 Sea Salt Sodium content is same as table salt Minerals: may contain small amounts of some trace minerals, depending on the minerals found in the water where it comes from

25 Protein Powders Problems: Most Americans already get enough/too much protein Whey protein & casein – possibly some research supporting the benefit in weight loss

26 What Makes up a Good Weight Loss Plan? Focused on the individuals needs – evaluate for problem areas Makes small changes that can be continued Focuses on slow weight loss Includes all foods but controls portion Encourages exercise

27 Whats Realistic? Weight loss of pounds per week Being able to eat small portions of favorite foods Exercise – can be short bouts of 10 minutes at a time, several times daily

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29 What should I recommend? Dont feed the fad craze Focus on positive changes for health – exercise, good food choices, small portions Avoid deprivation Focus on small successes that are maintained


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