Overview Household budget surveys with consumption modules expand our tools to measure food security This presentation highlights the indicators available through a household consumption module in addition to normal CFSVA modules Well look at an example of a final output that summarizes all of these indicators and then examine each in more detail
What are we trying to measure? Diet quantity Do households eat enough food in terms of energy? Diet quality Is the diet of sufficient quality to live a healthy life? Economic vulnerability Are households able to sustain their food security for the foreseeable future? Nutrition What are the outcomes of food and nutrition security (chronic and acute) telling us about the population? Coping Are households forced to reduce their diet due to hardships? If so, how severe is the situation?
List of indicators Diet Quantity Daily food energy consumption per capita (kilocalories) Population with food energy- deficiency Diet Quality Food energy from staples Household with high share of energy from staples Household with Poor Food Consumption Household with Borderline Food Consumption Household with Inadequate Food Consumption Diet diversity Households with low dietary diversity Economic Vulnerability Household with high percentage of expenditure on food Population below poverty line Population with food consumption below food poverty line Nutrition Prevalence of wasting among children under 5 years old Prevalence of stunting among children under 5 years old Prevalence of underweight among children under 5 years old Coping Coping Strategies Index
An output example StrataDiet QuantityDiet QualityNutritionEconomic VulnerabilityCoping Daily food energy consumption per capita (kilocalories) Population with food energy- deficiency Food energy from staples Household with high share of energy from staples Household with Inadequate Food ConsumptionDiet diversity Households with low dietary diversityWastingStuntingUnderweight Household with very high percentage of expenditure on food Population below poverty line Population with food consumption below food poverty line Coping Strategies Index (mean kcal)%%mean (0-8)%%% (mean reduced CSI) National2085.539.870.046.726.05.112.64.737.122.321.423.1 16.1 6.2 Zone Urban2397.427.562.922.%7.16.01.73.220.127.116.119.2 14.3 2.1 Rural2031.941.971.350.929.35.014.55.440.326.724.225.8 23.7 8.9 Regions 12231.933.457.226.518.104.22.168.929.322.130.018.6 16.2 6.1 22059.039.773.452.327.05.113.86.042.129.319.824.6 19.9 7.6 32076.441.469.922.214.171.124.25.537.422.321.029.5 24.4 10.1 Districts A1793.648.564.540.4126.96.36.199.543.928.935.927.4 23.8 9.4 B2017.341.053.619.4188.8.131.52.8184.108.40.2063.8 18.1 3.6 C2186.842.4220.127.116.11.63.33.739.427.728.622.7 17.6 4.1 D2470.227.052.213.18.104.22.168.833.723.324.813.9 9.3 1.7 E2327.127.267.839.432.74.922.214.171.1244.532.820.1 13.6 3.8
Diet quantity IndicatorWhat does it measure?How is it used? Daily food energy consumption per capita (kilocalories) On average, how many kilocalories of energy are consumed by a member of the household This indicator is used to provide a snapshot of caloric consumption by individuals at aggregate levels. It is an easily interpreted indication of household level diet quantity Population with food energy-deficiency What proportion of the population does not have sufficient caloric consumption The percent of the population that is energy deficient gives a quick method to determine which strata have the worst diet in terms of quantity
Diet quality IndicatorWhat does it measure?How is it used? Food energy from staplesThe proportion of kilocalories derived from staples (cereals, roots and tubers) at household level Households with a high proportion of energy derived from staples are considered to have a relatively poor diet Household with high share of energy from staples The proportion of households with more than 75% of their caloric consumption derived from staples Examination of strata with particularly poor diet quality Household with poor food consumption Percent of households with poor food consumption as measured by the food consumption score (FCS) A high prevalence of poor food consumption shows a very poor diet Household with borderline food consumption Percent of households with borderline food consumption as measured by the FCS A high prevalence of borderline food consumption shows a poor diet Household with inadequate food consumption Percent of households with poor or borderline food consumption as measured by the FCS See above Dietary diversity scoreThe number of varied food groups consumed by a household during a reference period (i.e. a 7-day recall) A low dietary diversity score reflects a poor quality of diet and a high risk to micronutrient deficiency Households with low dietary diversity The proportion of households consuming 4 or less food groups over a period of one week Strata with high prevalence of low dietary diversity may be used for further program targeting
Economic vulnerability IndicatorWhat does it measure?How is it used? Household with high percentage of expenditure on food The percentage of households that are categorized as having a high level of spending on food (more than 65%) Households falling into this category are considered to be vulnerable to various shocks including rising food prices Population below poverty lineThe poverty line uses the Cost of Basic Needs (CBN) which is based upon a minimum food basket and other required non food items. This indicator measures the number of people who do not have sufficient economic ability to acquire basic needs. Poverty figures are used in a multitude of development scenarios Population with food consumption below food poverty line The percentage of the population whose value of food consumption is less than the cost of the basic need food basket This indicator is similar to a practical implementation of the Cost of Diet concept. Households below the food poverty line are interpreted as having a poor diet in terms of quantity and/or quality
Nutrition IndicatorWhat does it measure?How is it used? Prevalence of wasting among children under 5 years old Wasting is defined as a low weight for the age of a child. A child is classified as wasted if their weight- for-age is more than 2 standard deviations (SDs) lower than a reference population. Severe wasting means they are more than 3 SDs lower. Wasting is used to describe an acute form of malnutrition representing a transitory state. It is a predictor of child mortality. Prevalence of stunting among children under 5 years old Stunting is defined as a low height for the age of a child. A child is classified as stunted if their height- for-age is more than 2 SDs lower than a reference population. Severe stunting means they are more than 3 SDs lower. Stunting results from long-term deficiencies in food intake and is thus used as a measurement of chronic malnutrition Prevalence of underweight among children under 5 years old Underweight represents a low weight for the height of a child. Prevalence of underweight is useful as a proxy for the nutritional status of the entire population
Coping IndicatorWhat does it measure?How is it used? Coping Strategies IndexThe CSI is based on a series of responses to a single question: What do you do when you dont have adequate food, and dont have the money to buy food? It is used to measure the frequency and severity of negative behaviors when a household is short of food CSI is used a food security proxy. As a continuous variable, the mean value can be compared over time and location to show which areas / populations are the worst off in terms of food security.