11 Nutritional Components of Food Section 4.2Nutritional Components of Food
12 Objectives Identify and describe the six classes of dietary nutrients. Describe the differences among the various types of cholesterol.Identify problems that can occur from inadequate amounts of certain nutrients.
13 Essential Nutrients substances from food that nourish the body ProteinsCarbohydratesFatsVitaminsMineralsWater
14 ProteinsThese are the basic components of body tissue and they also provide energy.
15 Protein is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, it is found in all cells. Protein plays a unique role in the growth and repair of body tissue, and they speed up the rate of chemical reactions in the body.All proteins are made up of amino acids: 11 of them can be produced by the body and 9 others must be supplied by food. The 9 that can not be produced by the body are called essential amino acids.
16 There are two types of proteins CompleteA protein that contains all 9 essential amino acids.IncompleteA protein that lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.
17 CarbohydratesA class of nutrients containing simple sugars, glycogen and dietary fiber.A main source of energy.
18 There are two types of carbohydrates Complex Are low in fat and rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber. Examples would include: pasta, rice and whole grains. These are a longer lasting energy source.Simple Low in fat, missing some essential vitamins and mineral and provides you with a short term energy source.
19 corn, rice bran, whole grains, greens and veggies Dietary fiberA complex carbohydrate that does not provide energy. It’s commonly called roughage. It helps to move undigested food through the digestive tract, preventing constipation & reducing the risk of certain diseases.corn, rice bran, whole grains, greens and veggies
21 Morning Eat protein, it will help jump start your brain. It will keep you going throughout the day.
22 EveningCarbohydrates will give you the “chill out” or a relaxed feeling.
23 FatsFats are energy storage molecules & supply more energy per gram that carbohydrates or proteins
24 There are two types of fats Saturated Usually solid at room temperature and can be found in most animal fats. They contain single bonds between carbon atoms and the maximum number of bonds of hydrogen atoms.Unsaturated Liquid at room temperature and contain fewer bonds of hydrogen. These are generally found in plants.
26 Do We Need Fat in Our Diets? They store energy in a form that can be used when the body needs it.They protect our organs.They insulate our body from the cold.They transport certain vitamins throughout the body.They are an important ingredient of several hormones.
27 CholesterolA fat like substance that is part of all animal cells and is needed for the production of some hormones and fat digestion.
28 Two TypesHDL(high-density lipoproteins) compounds that remove cholesterol from the blood and transport it back to the liver.LDL(low-density lipoproteins) compounds that carry cholesterol to the cells for cell processing.
30 VITAMINSOrganic substances that assist in the chemical reactions that occur in the body.
31 Fat Soluble VitaminsA: maintains healthy eyes, skin, bones, teeth and keeps the lining of digestive track resistant to infections.D: promotes normal growth.E: prevents the destruction of red blood cells.K: assists with blood clotting.
32 Water Soluble Vitamins B1: (Thiamine) assists with conversion of carbohydrates to energy B2: (Riboflavin) assists with nerve cell function B3: (Niacin) maintenance of normal metabolism B12: necessary for formation of red blood cells and normal cell function.
33 B6: (Pyridoxine) necessary for normal. carbohydrate, fat and protein B6: (Pyridoxine) necessary for normal carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism FOLACIN: necessary for the production of genetic materials BIOTIN: necessary for metabolism of carbs. and other B vitamins PANTOTHENIC ACID: used to produce some hormones and assists with the release of energy.
34 C: (Ascorbic Acid) needed for normal development of connective tissue.
35 MINERALSInorganic substances that are generally absorbed to form structural components of the body.
36 MineralsCALCIUM: necessary for normal growth of bones CHLORINE: maintenance of water balance COPPER: involved in skin color. IODINE: production of thyroid hormone. IRON: needed for some enzymes. MAGNESIUM: needed for chemical reactions.
37 MANGANESE: normal function of nerve cells PHOSOHORUS: plays a role in metabolism POTASSIUM: nerve and muscle function SODIUM: water balance & nerve conduction SULFUR: found in amino acids ZINC: needed for digestion, respiration, healing and metabolism.
38 Nutrient Deficiencies Night blindness and impaired growth can result from lack of vitamin A.Rickets and/or inadequate growth of bones and teeth comes from a lack of vitamin D.
39 Nutrient Deficiencies Lack of vitamin E can result in anemia.Lack of vitamin K can cause slow blood clotting.Deficient in B1 can result in muscle weakness & heart problems.
40 Nutrient Deficiencies Skin sores can be caused by the lack of vitamin B2.Lack of B3 is a contributing factor of depression.Skin disorders and hair loss can be from the lack of BIOTIN.
41 WATER Water is an essential component in you diet. About 2/3 of your body weight is water.
42 Vs.About 65 to 70% of your body weight is water.About 55 to 65% of your body weight is water.
43 Functions of H2O in the Body *All body functions are chemical reaction and most need water to occur *Helps maintain acidity at the proper level so the chemical reactions can occur. *Helps transport gases, nutrients and waste throughout the body *Regulates body temperature *water is a produce of chemical reaction that help drive your body processes.
44 A state which the body has lost more water than has been taken in. DehydrationA state which the body has lost more water than has been taken in.
45 Dehydration can occur as a result of heavy physical activity or an illness that includes vomiting, diarrhea, fever or a situation that cause you to sweat profusely This can happen if you are not drinking enough water.
51 WHAT DO YOU THINK? Example Some guidelines today, suggest this is the proper balance a teenager needs in there diet.WHAT DO YOU THINK?
52 Food PyramidPThis organizes foods into groups based on the dietary guidelines.DVFRC
53 How Much? Carbohydrates = 6 to 11 servings Vegetables = 3 to 5 servingsFruits = 2 to 4 servingsDairy = 2 to 3 servingsProtein = 2 to 3 servingsFats = not a food group, use sparingly
54 What you need to consume each day depends on? RememberAGEGENDERACTIVITYEXPECTATIONHEIGHTWEIGHTCHOICESWhat you need to consume each day depends on?
55 Protein for muscle growth Calcium and iron for developmental changes TeensBoth boys and girls experience increased demands for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals to deal with mental and physical changes.Protein for muscle growthCalcium and iron for developmental changes
56 Pregnant WomenAlso an increase demand for protein, vitamins, and minerals.They need to increase their caloric intake to meet the daily energy demands.Protein is big, needed for the growing fetus and the it’s environment.
57 They choose not to eat meat products and some avoid dairy. VegetariansThey choose not to eat meat products and some avoid dairy.Since not all essential nutrients can be found in plants (B12). They must eat a very wide variety of veggies and take a supplement to be sure they are receiving the nutrients they need to maintain a healthy life.
58 AthletesThey have specific nutritional needs for their training and performance requirements.The amount of calories consumed depends of the type of activity. One thing is for sure, they must DRINK WATER BEFORE, DURING and AFTER WORKOUTS
59 Their nutritional needs a similar to that of the general population. The ElderlyTheir nutritional needs a similar to that of the general population.As you age you should continue to eat a variety of foods to reduce the likelihood of missing important nutrients
61 Symptoms of Food-borne Illness Usually affect the stomach and intestinesCommon symptomsDiarrheaCrampingFeverHeadacheVomitingexhaustion
62 How Contamination Occurs Anytime during the production processUnsafe food handlingHandsCountertopsCutting boardsSpongesKitchen towels
63 Helpful Hints Buy perishable foods last when shopping Wait until you are about to leave to buy frozen foods.Don’t purchase damaged or dented cans and/or products.Check dates.Separate foods as needed.
64 NOW YOUR ON THE ROAD TO BETTER NUTRITION THE CHOICE IS YOURS!