*location of residence *physiological make-up *occupation *cultural background
Short Term Conditions Related to Poor Diet Fatigue Bad moods depression
Long Term Conditions Related to Poor Diet Obesity Heart disease/stroke High blood pressure Cancer Tooth decay Adult-onset diabetes
Section 4.2 Nutritional Components of Food
Objectives Identify and describe the six classes of dietary nutrients. Describe the differences among the various types of cholesterol. Identify problems that can occur from inadequate amounts of certain nutrients.
Essential Nutrients substances from food that nourish the body Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals Water
Proteins These are the basic components of body tissue and they also provide energy.
Protein is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, it is found in all cells. Protein plays a unique role in the growth and repair of body tissue, and they speed up the rate of chemical reactions in the body. All proteins are made up of amino acids: 11 of them can be produced by the body and 9 others must be supplied by food. The 9 that can not be produced by the body are called essential amino acids.
There are two types of proteins Complete A protein that contains all 9 essential amino acids. Incomplete A protein that lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.
Carbohydrates A class of nutrients containing simple sugars, glycogen and dietary fiber. A main source of energy.
There are two types of carbohydrates Complex Are low in fat and rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber. Examples would include: pasta, rice and whole grains. These are a longer lasting energy source. Simple Low in fat, missing some essential vitamins and mineral and provides you with a short term energy source.
Dietary fiber A complex carbohydrate that does not provide energy. Its commonly called roughage. It helps to move undigested food through the digestive tract, preventing constipation & reducing the risk of certain diseases. corn, rice bran, whole grains, greens and veggies
Morning Vs. Evening
Morning Eat protein, it will help jump start your brain. It will keep you going throughout the day.
Evening Carbohydrates will give you the chill out or a relaxed feeling.
Fats Fats are energy storage molecules & supply more energy per gram that carbohydrates or proteins
There are two types of fats Saturated Usually solid at room temperature and can be found in most animal fats. They contain single bonds between carbon atoms and the maximum number of bonds of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated Liquid at room temperature and contain fewer bonds of hydrogen. These are generally found in plants.
Do We Need Fat in Our Diets? They store energy in a form that can be used when the body needs it. They protect our organs. They insulate our body from the cold. They transport certain vitamins throughout the body. They are an important ingredient of several hormones.
Cholesterol A fat like substance that is part of all animal cells and is needed for the production of some hormones and fat digestion.
Two Types HDL(high- density lipoproteins) compounds that remove cholesterol from the blood and transport it back to the liver. LDL(low- density lipoproteins) compounds that carry cholesterol to the cells for cell processing.
Organic substances that assist in the chemical reactions that occur in the body.
Fat Soluble Vitamins A: maintains healthy eyes, skin, bones, teeth and keeps the lining of digestive track resistant to infections. D: promotes normal growth. E: prevents the destruction of red blood cells. K: assists with blood clotting.
Water Soluble Vitamins B1: (Thiamine) assists with conversion of carbohydrates to energy. B2: (Riboflavin) assists with nerve cell function. B3: (Niacin) maintenance of normal metabolism. B12: necessary for formation of red blood cells and normal cell function.
B6: (Pyridoxine) necessary for normal carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. FOLACIN: necessary for the production of genetic materials. BIOTIN: necessary for metabolism of carbs. and other B vitamins. PANTOTHENIC ACID: used to produce some hormones and assists with the release of energy.
C: (Ascorbic Acid) needed for normal development of connective tissue.
Inorganic substances that are generally absorbed to form structural components of the body.
Minerals CALCIUM: necessary for normal growth of bones. CHLORINE: maintenance of water balance. COPPER: involved in skin color. IODINE: production of thyroid hormone. IRON: needed for some enzymes. MAGNESIUM: needed for chemical reactions.
MANGANESE: normal function of nerve cells. PHOSOHORUS: plays a role in metabolism. POTASSIUM: nerve and muscle function. SODIUM: water balance & nerve conduction. SULFUR: found in amino acids. ZINC: needed for digestion, respiration, healing and metabolism.
Nutrient Deficiencies Night blindness and impaired growth can result from lack of vitamin A. Rickets and/or inadequate growth of bones and teeth comes from a lack of vitamin D.
Nutrient Deficiencies Lack of vitamin E can result in anemia. Lack of vitamin K can cause slow blood clotting. Deficient in B1 can result in muscle weakness & heart problems.
Nutrient Deficiencies Skin sores can be caused by the lack of vitamin B2. Lack of B3 is a contributing factor of depression. Skin disorders and hair loss can be from the lack of BIOTIN.
Water is an essential component in you diet. About 2/3 of your body weight is water.
Vs. About 65 to 70% of your body weight is water. About 55 to 65% of your body weight is water.
Functions of H2O in the Body *All body functions are chemical reaction and most need water to occur. *Helps maintain acidity at the proper level so the chemical reactions can occur. *Helps transport gases, nutrients and waste throughout the body. *Regulates body temperature. *water is a produce of chemical reaction that help drive your body processes.
Dehydration A state which the body has lost more water than has been taken in.
Dehydration can occur as a result of heavy physical activity or an illness that includes vomiting, diarrhea, fever or a situation that cause you to sweat profusely. This can happen if you are not drinking enough water.
Section 4.3 Analyzing your nutritional needs
Objectives *Define the nutritional requirements for healthy teens. *Classify foods into the appropriate food groups. *Identify special nutritional needs of selected populations.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) These are guidelines set so that you may select foods that provide you with a nutritionally balanced diet.
Example Some guidelines today, suggest this is the proper balance a teenager needs in there diet. WHAT DO YOU THINK?
Food Pyramid This organizes foods into groups based on the dietary guidelines. D P VFR C
How Much? Carbohydrates = 6 to 11 servings Vegetables = 3 to 5 servings Fruits = 2 to 4 servings Dairy = 2 to 3 servings Protein = 2 to 3 servings Fats = not a food group, use sparingly
Remember What you need to consume each day depends on? AGE GENDER ACTIVITY EXPECTATION HEIGHT WEIGHT CHOICES
Teens Both boys and girls experience increased demands for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals to deal with mental and physical changes. Protein for muscle growth Calcium and iron for developmental changes
Pregnant Women Also an increase demand for protein, vitamins, and minerals. They need to increase their caloric intake to meet the daily energy demands. Protein is big, needed for the growing fetus and the its environment.
Vegetarians They choose not to eat meat products and some avoid dairy. Since not all essential nutrients can be found in plants (B12). They must eat a very wide variety of veggies and take a supplement to be sure they are receiving the nutrients they need to maintain a healthy life.
Athletes They have specific nutritional needs for their training and performance requirements. The amount of calories consumed depends of the type of activity. One thing is for sure, they must DRINK WATER BEFORE, DURING and AFTER WORKOUTS
The Elderly Their nutritional needs a similar to that of the general population. As you age you should continue to eat a variety of foods to reduce the likelihood of missing important nutrients
Section 4.4 Food Safety
Symptoms of Food-borne Illness Usually affect the stomach and intestines –Common symptoms Diarrhea Cramping Fever Headache Vomiting exhaustion
How Contamination Occurs Anytime during the production process Unsafe food handling –Hands –Countertops –Cutting boards –Sponges –Kitchen towels
Helpful Hints Buy perishable foods last when shopping Wait until you are about to leave to buy frozen foods. Dont purchase damaged or dented cans and/or products. Check dates. Separate foods as needed.
NOW YOUR ON THE ROAD TO BETTER NUTRITION THE CHOICE IS YOURS!