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©2002 Learning Zone ExpressLouanne Kaupa, RD, LN.
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressHistory The concept of plant based diets dates back to 6th century B.C. Pythagoras, a Greek Philosopher, is considered to be the “Father of Vegetarianism”. He encouraged his followers to avoid eating meat in their diets. Others who encouraged vegetarian lifestyles included: Socrates, Plato, Ovid, and Virgil. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressVegetarianism Today Today it is estimated that nearly 15 million people in North America are choosing vegetarian based meal plans. One of the fastest growing groups of vegetarians are older adolescents and young adults. Vegetarian options are one of the most requested menu changes by young adults in group living arrangements (dorms) and in higher education opportunities. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
Types of VegetarianismLacto-Vegetarians Ovo-Vegetarians Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarians Vegan Pesco-Vegeterians Semi-Vegetarians ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressVegetarianism Types Lacto-Vegetarians A plant based diet which excludes all animal products except dairy products. Ovo-Vegetarians A plant based diet which excludes all animal products except eggs. Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarians Diet consists of plant foods, dairy products and eggs. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressVegetarianism Types Vegan A diet which avoids the use of any animal product or byproduct. Pesco-Vegetarian A diet which avoids red meat but includes fish. Semi-Vegetarian A diet which avoids red meat but occasionally includes fish or poultry. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
Reasons for Choosing VegetarianismReligious Some religious groups practice vegetarianism due to health, moral, and/or ethical reasons (i.e. 7th Day Adventists). Ethical/Moral Beliefs The belief that it is wrong to use a living creature for food. The belief that the manner in which animals are raised and slaughtered is immoral. Belief that there is an unnecessary excess of meat products in American meal plans. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
Reasons for Choosing VegetarianismHealth There is increasing evidence that a well planned plant based diet may have health benefits. Chronic diseases which occur les often in populations following vegetarian diets include coronary artery disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Environmental Many believe the production of animals for food creates more environmental waste than the production of plants for food. Taste Many do not enjoy the taste of animal products and prefer a plant based diet. Other reasons include: Economics, politics, or available food supply in developing countries. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressMeal Planning Basics A vegetarian meal plan needs to meet the same standards as any other diet. It needs to have balance, variety, and moderation. Nutrient needs of a Vegetarian Meal Plan include: Water Macronutrients Carbohydrate Protein Fat Micronutrients Vitamins Minerals In addition to nutrient needs, a vegetarian meal plan should provide adequate calories to support growth or maintain body tissue. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
The Importance of Water50-60% of the human body’s weight is water. The body needs water to: Allow for the digestion of food. Carry nutrients from the stomach & small intestines to the circulatory system (i.e. blood). Carry waste out of the body (i.e. urine). Regulate body temperature. Make substances which help to lubricate joints. Dietary Water Recommendation: 6-8 servings (8 fl. oz) per day. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressCarbohydrates Carbohydrates are the bodies major source of energy. All tissues and organs in the body rely on the energy (or calories) from carbohydrates to work. There are two type of Carbohydrates: Simple Carbohydrates (sugars) Food Sources: Fruits, fruit juices, milk, sweets, soda, jams and jellies. Complex Carbohydrates (starches) Food Sources: Vegetables, grains, rice, legumes, and pasta. Carbohydrate-rich foods also are an excellent source of several micronutrients like Vitamins B & C, beta-carotene, magnesium and potassium. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressProteins Proteins are made up of small units called amino acids. 20 different amino acids are needed by the body to build and repair protein structures. Non-Essential Amino Acids - 11 amino acids that the body can produce. Essential Amino Acids - 9 amino acids that must be supplied to the body through the diet. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressEssential Amino Acids Essential amino acids can be found both in animal and plant-based foods. Animal protein food sources provide “complete” proteins or foods which contain enough of the 9 essential amino acids to support the work of the body. The protein found in plant foods are considered “incomplete” proteins. When plant foods are combined with other plant foods, all 9 essential amino acids can be consumed. This combining of plant foods is referred to as eating “complementary” proteins. In a well-planned, well-balanced vegetarian diet — including whole grains, legumes, rice, nuts, seeds, vegetables and fruits — incomplete proteins are combined throughout the day to provide the body with all the necessary “complete” proteins. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
“Complementary Proteins”Examples of plant-based foods which when combined with other plant-based foods provide all 9 essential amino acids: Oatmeal and almonds. Peanut butter and whole-wheat bread. Beans and rice. Rice and milk. Corn tortillas and beans. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressFats Fat is a major source of energy (calories) in many Western diets. Fat provides flavor and texture to foods. Fat is also important in various body functions, including: Allowing vitamins A, D, E & K to get from the stomach into the bloodstream. Providing the body’s internal organs with cushioning. Slowing the time it takes for food to pass through the gastro-intestinal tract. Providing essential fatty acids which are needed for all cell membrane structures. Food sources of essential fatty acids include: vegetable oils, nuts & seeds, and fish. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressVitamins & Minerals The typical American diet is based on meat eating. Many adults who have grown up in meat-eating households believe that cutting meat out of the diet will lead to nutritional deficiencies. However, this is not the case in well-planned plant based diets. Nonetheless, nutrients which do need special attention in plant-based diets include: Iron, Calcium, Vitamin B12, and riboflavin. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressIron The most common nutrient deficiency in the U.S. is iron deficiency anemia, occurring most frequently in adolescent girls, pregnant women, infants and children 5 years of age or younger. Iron is needed in the body to transport oxygen (from the lungs to the body’s cells) via the hemoglobin molecule. Iron is found in animal products including meat, fish and poultry. Iron is also found in: Legumes - dried beans, peas & lentils. Iron-fortified grains. Spinach and other greens. Prunes Small amounts in vegetables and eggs. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressCalcium Calcium has many roles in the human body. It helps build and maintain bones and teeth, and also helps the heart, muscles, and nerves to work properly. A lack of calcium in the diet can cause a loss of bone calcium (which can lead to osteoporosis) and increased blood pressure (hypertension). Non-dairy food sources of calcium include: Calcium-fortified soy milk products, calcium-fortified rice milks, and calcium-fortified orange juice. Moderate amounts of calcium are also found in tofu, legumes, nuts and seeds, and many vegetables. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressVitamin B12 Vitamin B12 is necessary for cell division and the normal development and function of the nervous system. Vitamin B12 comes primarily from animal tissues, including egg yolks, and dairy products, making it a nutrient of significance for vegans. Vitamin B12 can be found in fortified foods, such as breakfast cereals, soy milk, or nutritional yeast. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressRiboflavin Riboflavin is necessary for growth and generation of new tissue as it allows the body’s cells to use dietary carbohydrate, protein and fat for energy. Good food sources of riboflavin include: Milk and dairy products. Organ meats, red meats, eggs, green leafy vegetables, and fortified grains contain small amounts of riboflavin. Vegans may require a dietary supplement to meet the body’s need for riboflavin. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
Challenges for VegetariansDinner at friend’s or extended family member’s homes. Eating in restaurants. Eating on the road. Many fast food places do not offer a wide range of vegetarian food options. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressYou’re the Expert You decide to have friends over for dinner on Friday night. You invite several classmates, including the new girl in class named Kate. You learn that Kate is a vegan. What will you prepare for dinner and how will you go about making sure that Kate, as well as your other friends, feel comfortable with the meal. Discuss your plans in small groups and then present your dinner plans to the class. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressVegetarianism Quiz Choose the best answer to the following questions. 1. A person may choose a vegetarian diet based on: a. Environmental beliefs. b. Heath reasons. c. Ethical beliefs. d. All of the above. 2. Lacto-Vegetarians include_______in their meal plan. a. Animal products. b. Dairy products. c. Eggs. d. Fish. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressVegetarianism Quiz 3. Carbohydrates, protein & fat are: a. Micronutrients. b. Calories. c. Complete proteins. d. Macronutrients. 4. Vegans: a. Do not eat vegetables. b. Eat only red meat. c. Eat eggs. d. Avoid eating animal products. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressVegetarianism Quiz 5. Many are concerned that vegetarians will lack_____ in their diets. a. Iron. b. Vitamin B12. c. Calcium. d. All of the above. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressApplying What You Know Choose one of the following assignments to complete outside of class. Create a 3-day meal plan for a vegan diet. Be sure to meet the daily nutritional requirements each day. For extra credit, try out your meal plan and present your results to the class. Write a review of a restaurant as if you were a food critic for a vegetarian magazine (including scoring the restaurant). Visit a local restaurant, ask about the vegetarian choices and analyze what the restaurant has to offer. Would you choose to eat there if you were a vegetarian? What would you order? Was the waitress helpful in answering your questions regarding the vegetarian options? Create a poster showing the vegetarian choices at your school’s food service. Interview your school’s food service director. Ask him or her about the vegetarian options available at your school. Add suggestions you may have for improving the food service. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone ExpressExploring the Web Here are some suggested sites you and your class may want to investigate for more information on nutrients. International Vegetarian Union The Vegetarian Resource Group Veggies Unite! Teachers: Please note that these addresses are constantly changing and being updated. You may need to revise this list. ©2002 Learning Zone Express
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1 ©2002 Learning Zone Express Louanne Kaupa, RD, LN.
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