Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dietary Management of Gastrointestinal Disease. Animal Diet Feeding Method Clinical Nutrition Assessment.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Dietary Management of Gastrointestinal Disease. Animal Diet Feeding Method Clinical Nutrition Assessment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dietary Management of Gastrointestinal Disease

2 Animal Diet Feeding Method Clinical Nutrition Assessment

3 Dietary Management - GI Disease GI Functions Diet types Acute GI disease Chronic GI disease

4 Dietary Management - GI Disease Digestion and absorption Water regulation Immune monitoring Hormone production Enteric nervous system Waste elimination

5 Diet Types Highly digestible Fiber enhanced Hypoallergenic Fat restricted Gluten-free Lactose-free

6 Highly Digestible Diet digestibility is a function of: – –Ingredients – –Processing – –Meal size – –Animals GI function

7 Highly Digestible Starch Digestibility in Dogs CornRiceBarleyOats Walker, et.al., J. Animal Sci

8 Nutrient profile (dog) – –Increased digestibility > 90% – –Moderate protein < 30% – –Moderate fat < 15% – –Low fiber < 1% Highly Digestible

9 Nutrient profile (cat) – –Increased digestibility > 90% – –Moderate protein < 35% – –Moderate fat < 25% – –Low fiber < 1% Highly Digestible

10 Diet Types Highly digestible Fiber enhanced - High Low - Soluble vs insoluble - Fermentable vs poorly fermentable Hypoallergenic Fat restricted Gluten-free Lactose-free

11 Fiber-enhanced Fiber – –Complex carbohydrate – –Resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes – –Found in plants

12 Fiber-enhanced Carbohydrates Simple sugars (Monosaccharides, dissacharides) Starch ( bonds) Fiber ( bonds) Complex carbohydrates (Polysaccharides, oligosaccharides)

13 Fiber Enhanced Fiber Levels in Pet Foods % Fiber (DM) Typical foods. 1% 15% 27% High Fiber Moderate Fiber Low Fiber 4% 1%

14 Fiber-enhanced Soluble vs. insoluble – –Refers to the ability of a fiber to disperse in water – –Most rapidly fermentable fibers are soluble (e.g., gums, pectins) – –Most slowly fermentable fibers are insoluble (e.g., cellulose, soy mill run)

15 Fiber-enhanced Fermentable vs. poorly fermentable – –Digestion of fiber by intestinal microbes – –Produces SCFA (VFA) and gases – –SCFA provide nutrition for enterocytes and may modulate GI motility and fecal water content

16 Fiber Fermentability in the Colon cellulose beet pulp pectin peanut hulls soybean hulls bran soy fiber guar gum slowly fermentable rapidly fermentable Fiber-enhanced

17 cellulose beet pulp pectin peanut hulls soybean hulls bran soy fiber guar gum Rapidly Fermentable Slowly Fermentable Moderately Fermentable Fiber-enhanced

18 Fiber-enhanced Prebiotic fibers – – FOS – – MOS – – GOS – – Lactosucrose – – Lactulose – – Inulin

19

20 Fiber – – VFA nutritive to mucosa – –Normalizes motility (insoluble) – –Acidifies contents change flora Fiber Enhanced

21 Diet Types Highly digestible Fiber enhanced Hypoallergenic Novel protein/limited antigen Hydrolyzed protein Fat restricted Gluten-free Lactose-free

22 Nutrient profile – limited or controlled antigen diet – –Avoid protein excess – –Limited number, novel proteins – –Highly digestible protein – –Additive free – –Free of vasoactive amines Novel protein

23 Hydrolyzed protein (protein hydrolysates) Native proteinDenatured protein Protein hydrolysate

24 Mast cell/Basophil Hydrolyzed protein (protein hydrolysates) Inhalation Transdermal Ingestion Injection Allergen Chymase Tryptase Leukotriene Histamine Cytokines TNF-α

25 Hydrolyzed protein (protein hydrolysates) No cross linkage No degranulation

26 Protein Hydrolysates Advantages – –Truly hypoallergenic – –Will not elicit IgE-mediated response – –Protein source is less important Disadvantages – –Expensive – –Difficult to manufacture – –Bitter taste

27 Diet Types Highly digestible Fiber enhanced Hypoallergenic Fat restricted - Amount - Fatty acid content (amount/ratio) Gluten-free Lactose-free

28 Fat Restricted Diets Fat Levels in Dog Foods % Fat (DM ) Typical Severely Restricted Moderately Restricted Growth Adult 15-50

29 Gluten – –Cereal grain protein which contains the antigen gliadin – –Present in wheat, barley, rye and oats – –Many diets dont contain gluten Gluten-Free Diets

30 Lactose-free diets – –Brush-border lactases often deficient in intestinal disease – –Lactose osmotic diarrhea Lactose-Free Diets

31 Pancreatic Amylase Salivary Amylase Gastric HCI Enterocyte Lactase Sucrase Maltase Isomaltase Lactose-Free Diets

32 Nutrient content milk – –Lactose mg/kcal ME Bitch28 Queen71 Cow77 Goat62 Lactose-Free Diets

33 Acute gastroenteritis Gastric dilatation-volvulus Acute GI Disease

34 Most common GI disease Causes: – –Parasites – –Diet indiscretion – –Infectious diseases – –Toxins Acute Gastroenteritis

35 Dietary management – –Reduce stimulus for vomiting NPO hrs – –Reduce/resolve diarrhea no food hrs Acute Gastroenteritis

36 Gastric Emptying Neural Myogenic Autonomic Nutrients - Fats, Proteins Hormonal Secretin CCK Gastrin

37 Acute Gastroenteritis

38 Dietary management – –Small frequent meals (3-6 xs/day) – –Gradually increase amount (3 days) – –Highly digestible diet Acute Gastroenteritis

39 Appropriate emergency medical/surgical management Dietary management = acute gastroenteritis Acute Gastric Dilation-Volvulus

40 Dietary risk factors? – –Large meals – –Temporal relationship: exercise & eating – –Rapid/competitive eating – –Diet form/size/ingredients – –Elevated food bowls

41 Acute Gastric Dilation-Volvulus Dietary management - prevention – –Reduce aerophagia – –Multiple daily feedings – –Highly digestible diets

42 Maldigestion – –EPI – –Bile acid deficiency – –Loss of brush border enzymes Malassimilation Malabsorption – –Lymphangiectasia – –Bacterial overgrowth – –Inflammatory bowel disease – –Gluten-sensitive enteropathy

43 Maldigestion Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI) DM Digestibility (%) Normal EPI + Enzymes Normal EPI + Enzymes Commercial dietVeterinary diet Pidgeon, JAVMA 181 (1982)

44 Dietary management of EPI – –Small frequent meals – –Highly digestible diet – –Avoid high fiber diet Maldigestion

45 Parasites Inflammatory/infiltrative Psychogenic Colon Disorders

46 Definitive diagnosis Appropriate pharmacologic management Dietary management Colon Disorders

47 Diet type Highly digestible Hypoallergenic Fiber enhanced Effect Decreased ingesta to colon Decreased exposure to antigens VFA normalizes motility change flora

48 Constipation Environmental Pain Colonic obstruction Neuromuscular disease

49 Constipation Appropriate pharmacologic and surgical management Highly digestible diet High fiber diet (multiple small meals) – –Decreases stool density – –Normalizes transit time

50 Flatulence Swallowed air Intestinal gases 99% no odor = H 2, CH 4, CO 2 1% odor = NH 3, H 2 S, VFAs, indoles/skatoles Maldigestion/malabsorption Constipation

51 Flatulence Control aerophagia – –Multiple small meals Highly digestible diet Avoid High fiber diets High protein diets Vegetables Vitamin supplements Garbage

52 Summary Multiple diet types are suitable for dietary management of GI disease Appropriate dietary management requires diagnosis Acute GI disease = highly digestible diet


Download ppt "Dietary Management of Gastrointestinal Disease. Animal Diet Feeding Method Clinical Nutrition Assessment."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google