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Carol Milliron, PhD Student Walden University PUBH-8165-2 Environmental Health Dr. Raymond Thron.

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Presentation on theme: "Carol Milliron, PhD Student Walden University PUBH-8165-2 Environmental Health Dr. Raymond Thron."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carol Milliron, PhD Student Walden University PUBH Environmental Health Dr. Raymond Thron

2 Background of the problem Definition of affected population Prevalence Significance Prevention PTAs Healthy Lifestyles Program Conclusion Sites of interest Questions?

3 Overweight definition BMI greater than 85 th percentile Obesity definition BMI greater than 95 th percentile Over past 30 years, frequency has tripled Cannot blame genetics or environment alone Leads to health complications $125 million in hospital costs each year Hughes, A. & Reilly, J. (2008). Disease management programs targeting obesity in children. Disease Management Health Outcomes, 16(4), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, Miller, J., Rosenbloom, A. & Silverstein, J. (2004). Childhood obesity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(9), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, 2010.

4 Rapid rise in many countries, particularly U.S., Canada and Australia Affects children of all ages, both sexes, most ethnic groups, and all socioeconomic backgrounds African Americans and Hispanics have higher rates of obesity Poor diet and limited opportunities for physical activity Changes in environment a factor Genetic component is an issue. Hughes, A. & Reilly, J. (2008). Disease management programs targeting obesity in children. Disease Management Health Outcomes, 16(4), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, Miller, J., Rosenbloom, A. & Silverstein, J. (2004). Childhood obesity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(9), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, 2010

5 Prevalence is the total number of cases existing in a defined population at a given time (Schneider, 2006, p. 70). From 1971 to 2004, the number of overweight children aged… 2-5 years increased from 5% to 13.9% 6-11 years increased from 4% to 18.8% years increased from 6.1% to 17.4% Mexican American and African American experienced even greater increases than Caucasians Hughes, A. & Reilly, J. (2008). Disease management programs targeting obesity in children. Disease Management Health Outcomes, 16(4), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, Schneider, M.J. (2006). Introduction to public health. (2 nd ed.). Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers International. Tchernis, R., Millimet, D., & Hussain, M. (2008, January). Center for applied economics and policy research. School nutrition programs and the incidence of childhood obesity. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on January 15, 2010 at

6 Problems facing overweight children include Obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases Asthma, abnormal lipid profiles, depression, low self esteem, low levels of athletic competence, body dissatisfaction Problems that persist into adulthood include Economic disadvantage, persistence of cardiovascular risk factors, greater morbidity and premature mortality Holmes, T. (2008, Fall). Using reality therapy to influence health behaviors: Childhood obesity. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(1), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 15, Miller, J., Rosenbloom, A. & Silverstein, J. (2004). Childhood obesity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(9), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, 2010.

7 May be victims of physical aggression, teasing, and exclusion from activities Body dissatisfaction can lead to eating disorders Rated lower quality of life (QOL) scores Decreases health of nation as a whole Costs the average taxpayer approximately $175 per year to finance medical costs Finkelstein, E., Ruhm, C., Kosa, K. (2005). Economic causes and consequences of obesity. Annual Review of Public Health, 26: Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, Gibson, L., Byrne, S., Blair, E., Davis, E., Jacoby, P. & Zubrick, S. (2008). Clustering of psychosocial symptoms in overweight children. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42: Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 16, Holmes, T. (2008, Fall). Using reality therapy to influence health behaviors: Childhood obesity. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(1), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 15, 2010.

8 Primary Intervene to stop children from being overweight in the first place Secondary Focus on existing obesity to prevent the worsening of the condition Tertiary Focuses on reduction of further complications Caballero, B. (2004). Obesity prevention in children: Opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Obesity, 28: S9-S95. Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 23, Cohen, L. & Chehimi, S. (2007). Beyond brochures: The imperative for primary prevention. In L. Cohen, V. Chavez, & S. Chehimi. Prevention is primary. Strategies for community well-being. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. Maffeis, C. & Tato, L. (2001). Long term effects of childhood obesity on morbidity and mortality. Hormone Research, 55, Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 19, Steinbeck, K.S. (2001). The importance of physical activity in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood. A review and an opinion. The International Association for the Study of Obesity, Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 20, Story, M. (1999). School-based approaches for preventing and treating obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 23, S43-S51. Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on September 25, Primary Health Care (2009, May). Tackling childhood obesity. 19(4), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 20, 2010.

9 Trends… Children less active today than ever before Only 22 percent of schools offer physical education on a daily basis Two-thirds of students in grades 9-12 do not get the recommended amount of physical activity More than one-third of high school students watch more than three hours of television per day Studies show… Children who have daily physical education classes have better attendance Children who spend less time in other subjects to allow for regular physical education classes do equally well or better in academic classes PTA ( ). Programs: Healthy lifestyles. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on January 23, 2010 at

10 Raise awareness of School Wellness Policy Schools required to implement wellness policies that address student nutrition and physical activity issues Policy must include Nutritional education goals Physical activity goals Nutrition guidelines for all foods available on campus Ways for parents, students, school administrators, the school board, and the general public to get involved Other school based programs to promote student wellness Plans for evaluating the policy PTA ( ). Programs: Healthy lifestyles. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on January 23, 2010 at

11 Nutrition Recommended daily portions Information on healthy snacks Information on healthy beverages Exercise Information on exercise and setting realistic goals Other information Bike safety Vaccinations PTA ( ). Programs: Healthy lifestyles. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on January 23, 2010 at

12 Childhood obesity is a problem that impacts the health of the nation Parents, school administrators, teachers, and the PTA can all make a difference Join the National PTA in promoting The Healthy Lifestyles Program

13 For further information on the National PTA Healthy Lifestyles Program visit Research Articles: Li, J. & Hooker, N. (2010, February). Childhood obesity and schools: Evidence from the national survey of childrens health. Journal of School Health, 80(2). Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database. Lytle, L. (2009, December). Examining the etiology of childhood obesity: The idea study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 44(3/4). Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database. Websites of interest: Walk or Ride to School – Action for Healthy Kids – National Association for Sport and Physical Education – The Presidents Challenge for Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program – PTA Parents Resources – National Alliance for Nutrition and Activity – U.S Department of Agriculture – The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation – Institute of Medicine of the National Academies – Center for Science in the Public Interest – MyPyramid –

14 Caballero, B. (2004). Obesity prevention in children: Opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Obesity, 28: S9-S95. Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 23, Cohen, L. & Chehimi, S. (2007). Beyond brochures: The imperative for primary prevention. In L. Cohen, V. Chavez, & S. Chehimi. Prevention is primary. Strategies for community well-being. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. Finkelstein, E., Ruhm, C., Kosa, K. (2005). Economic causes and consequences of obesity. Annual Review of Public Health, 26: Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, Gibson, L., Byrne, S., Blair, E., Davis, E., Jacoby, P. & Zubrick, S. (2008). Clustering of psychosocial symptoms in overweight children. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42: Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 16, Holmes, T. (2008, Fall). Using reality therapy to influence health behaviors: Childhood obesity. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(1), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 15, Hughes, A. & Reilly, J. (2008). Disease management programs targeting obesity in children. Disease Management Health Outcomes, 16(4), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, Maffeis, C. & Tato, L. (2001). Long term effects of childhood obesity on morbidity and mortality. Hormone Research, 55, Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 19, Miller, J., Rosenbloom, A. & Silverstein, J. (2004). Childhood obesity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(9), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 12, Primary Health Care (2009, May). Tackling childhood obesity. 19(4), Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 20, PTA ( ). Programs: Healthy lifestyles. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on January 23, 2010 at Schneider, M.J. (2006). Introduction to public health. (2 nd ed.). Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers International. Steinbeck, K.S. (2001). The importance of physical activity in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood. A review and an opinion. The International Association for the Study of Obesity, Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on January 20, Story, M. (1999). School-based approaches for preventing and treating obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 23, S43-S51. Retrieved from EBSCO Host Database on September 25, Tchernis, R., Millimet, D., & Hussain, M. (2008, January). Center for applied economics and policy research. School nutrition programs and the incidence of childhood obesity. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on January 15, 2010 at


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