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Chapter 2: Planning a Healthy Diet Principles and Guidelines.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Planning a Healthy Diet Principles and Guidelines."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: Planning a Healthy Diet Principles and Guidelines

2 A Healthful Diet Planning a healthful diet – Principles & Guidelines key to assisting people in selecting foods to deliver nutrients without excess energy – Assist in food selection while shopping, eating at restaurant, or preparing meals at home

3 A Healthful Diet Provides proper combination of energy & nutrients. A healthful diet is... – Adequate – Balanced – Energy controlled – Moderate – Nutrient dense – Varied

4 Diet Planning Principles A Healthful Diet Is Adequate An adequate diet provides enough energy, nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and fibre to support a persons health.

5 Diet Planning Principles A Healthful Diet Is Balanced A balanced diet contains the right combinations of foods to provide the proper balance of nutrients. Providing foods in proportion to each other and in proportion to bodys needs

6 Diet Planning Principles A Healthful Diet has Energy Control A healthful diet contains the right amounts of foods for maintaining proper weight. Nutrient-density supports adequacy & moderation – Measure of the nutrients in a food relative to energy provided – nutrients energy = high nutrient density – energy nutrients = high energy density

7 Energy Density 450 gram breakfast delivers 500 kcal Energy density of 1.1 kcal/g 144 gram breakfast delivers 500 kcal Energy density of 3.5 kcal/g

8 Nutrient Density Medium apple provides 72 kcal, 14.37 g sugar, 2.6g fibre, 148mg potassium, 6.4mg vit C Apple Juice (1 cup) provides 121 kcal, 25g sugar,.5g fribre, 265mg potassium, 107 mg vit C

9 Diet Planning Principles A Healthful Diet Is Moderate A person practicing moderation chooses high nutrient dense foods most often & high energy dense foods least often Contributes to adequacy, balance, & energy control

10 Diet Planning Principles A Healthful Diet Is Varied Variety refers to eating many different types of foods each day within and among the major food groups. A healthful diet is not based on only one or a few types of foods.

11 Designing a Healthful Diet The tools for designing a healthful diet may include: – Dietary Guidelines – Food Guides – Diet Plans – Food Labels

12 Tools for Dietary Guidance - Dietary Guidelines

13 Tools for Dietary Guidance - Food Guides Basic tools designed to help people make wise food choices. Translate science into practical pattern of food choices.

14 Evolution of Food Guides in Canada









23 Eating Well with Canadas Food Guide - 2007

24 Eating Well with Canadas Food Guide Is based on current evidence Communicates amounts and types of food needed to help: –Meet nutrient needs and promote health –Minimize the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, certain types of cancer and osteoporosis Provides the cornerstone for nutrition policies and programs

25 Eating Well with Canadas Food Guide Rainbow design emphasizes vegetables and fruit Background image depicts connection between food and their origin Graphics reflect diversity of foods available in Canada

26 A healthy eating pattern for Canadians The interior pages provide guidance on quantity of food to eat and quality of food choices

27 Guidance on the quantity of food Guidance is given for males and females, 2 years and older: –Children, teens and adults A small amount of unsaturated fats is recommended –For intake of essential fatty acids

28 What is one Food Guide Serving? A Food Guide Serving is: – A reference amount – Not necessarily intended to represent what would be eaten in one sitting Illustrations and different measures are used to help communicate what is one Food Guide Serving

29 Counting Food Guide Servings An example is provided illustrating how to estimate the number of Food Guide Servings in a meal

30 Guidance on the quality of food choices Oils and fats – The types of oils and fats to include and the types to limit Choices within each food group – Guidance on lower fat / sugar / salt choices (ex: Choose vegetables and fruit prepared with little or no added fat, sugar or salt.) – The Food Guide includes more guidance on quality of choices

31 Guidance on the quality of food choices: Vegetables & Fruit Eat at least one dark green and one orange vegetable each day – For folate and vitamin A intake Have vegetables & fruit more often than juice – For fibre intake

32 Guidance on the quality of food choices: Grain Products Make at least half your grain products whole grain each day – For fibre and magnesium intake – To reduce risk of cardiovascular disease

33 Guidance on the quality of food choices: Milk and Alternatives Drink skim, 1%, or 2% milk each day – For calcium and vitamin D intake Have 500 mL (2 cups) of milk every day for adequate vitamin D Drink fortified soy beverages if you do not drink milk

34 Guidance on the quality of food choices: Meat and Alternatives Have meat alternatives such as beans, lentils and tofu often – For a lower saturated fat intake – For fibre intake Eat at least two Food Guide Servings of fish each week – To reduce risk of cardiovascular disease

35 Make each Food Guide Serving count…. Advice on the quality of food choices is an essential part of the pattern –Bolded statements provide advice on quality of choices advice on quality of choices –Statements in regular font provide actionable tips provide actionable tips Messages on variety and water

36 Advice for children Young children need to eat small amounts of food throughout the day. Nutritious foods that contain fat do not need to be restricted. –These foods are a concentrated source of calories that are needed for growth. of calories that are needed for growth. Parents and caregivers are role models.

37 Advice for women of childbearing age All women who could become pregnant and those who are pregnant or breastfeeding –need a multivitamin containing 400 micrograms folic acid every day Pregnant women - multivitamin should contain iron.

38 Advice for women of childbearing age Extra calories are needed during: –The 2 nd and 3 rd trimesters of pregnancy –Breastfeeding Including an extra 2 or 3 Food Guide Servings is expected to meet these additional needs

39 Advice for men and women over 50 Health benefits are associated with adequate vitamin D intake Vitamin D requirements increase at age 50 and again at age 70: –400 IU (10 micrograms) at age 51 –600 IU (15 micrograms) at age 71

40 Advice for men and women over 50 It is difficult to meet these vitamin D levels without recommending unrealistic amounts of some foods A supplement containing 400 IU vitamin D, in addition to following the Food Guide will achieve recommended dietary intake levels

41 Eat well and be active every day Highlights benefits of eating well & being active Encourages regular physical activity – 30 to 60 minutes per day for adults – At least 90 minutes per day for children and teens Includes messaging about adding up short periods throughout the day

42 Eat well and be active every day Encourages eating the recommended amount & type of food Encourages limiting foods high in calories, fat, sugar, salt

43 Eat well and be active every day Encourages the use of the Nutrition Facts table – To choose foods with less fat, saturated and trans fat, sugar and sodium – To become aware of the calorie content of foods Encourages asking for nutrition information to make informed choices

44 Eat well and be active every day Provides actionable tips towards… –Eating well: Take time to eat and savour every bite! –And being active: Walk wherever you can – get off the bus early, use the stairs.

45 Food Guide On-line Includes interactive tools: – Guided tour – My Food Guide Links to Dietitians of Canada EATracker oodguide

46 United States Food Guides Around the World

47 Greece

48 Food Labeling in Canada

49 Consumer Use of Food Labels ¾ of Canadians say food labels play an important role in purchase decisions Important tool to making healthy food choices National Institute of Nutrition

50 Nutrition Label Regulation January 1, 2003 – make nutrition labelling mandatory by 2007 – update requirements for nutrient content claims – allow nutrition claims etiquet/nutrition/index_e.html

51 Food Labels in Canada Appear on virtually all processed foods Posters or brochures for fresh products Foods not requiring nutrition labels – Food products contributing few nutrients – Food products made by small businesses – Foods prepared & sold in same establishment – Individual packages not for resale Unless a health claim is made or fortification done Many voluntarily provide labels Restaurants exempt from providing complete nutrition info except if health claim made

52 Food Labels in Canada Canadian food labels provide – Name of the product – Net content – Company name & address – Ingredient list – Nutrition facts panel – May include approved nutrition claims

53 List of Ingredients Lists all ingredients in descending order by weight Identify certain nutrients and their importance in foods. Identify specific ingredients.

54 List of Ingredients - How do products compare? Orange Drink – water, sugar, citric acid, orange flavour, colour Orange Juice – water, orange juice concentrate

55 Serving Sizes Nutrition information presented per serving – Serving size must be presented as reference Similar products use similar serving size – Allows for easy comparison Expressed in both common household & metric measures Compare serving size on label to what you are consuming – Not always equivalent to food guide serving – Be cautious with individually packaged foods

56 How do the amount of food on a label compare with what you eat and Canadas Food Guide? Food Label bran cereal with raisins bran cereal with raisins 1 cup (59 g) Food Guide 30 g At home 1 ½ cups bran cereal with raisins Health Canada - Nutrition Labelling Toolkit for Educators

57 Nutrition Facts Table Core nutrients included – Kilocalories, kcals from fat, total amount of fat, saturated & trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, CHO, starch, sugar & fiber, protein, calcium, iron & vitamins A & C in a specified amount of food. – Expressed in weight and/or percent daily value

58 * Information on Nutrition Facts table is based on a specific amount of food. ** Use % Daily Value to see if a food has a little or lot of a nutrient

59 How are % Daily Values determined? Based on 2000 kcal diet Provides ballpark estimate of how individual foods contribute to total diet % DV = nutrient content (mg) X 100 Daily Value

60 How to use % DV? Quick product evaluation – > 20% high or excellent source – 10-19% good source – < 5% low – 20% or less desirable for nutrients such as fat & sodium – 20% or higher desirable for nutrients such as calcium & fibre Compare products Select foods for special dietary needs

61 Nutrition Claims Nutrient content claims – describe the amount of a nutrient in a food Diet-related health claims – describe relationship between consumption of a food/nutrient & the reduction in risk of developing a disease or condition Structure-function claims – Describe relationship between a food/nutrient or other substance & its role in the body

62 Nutrient Content Claims Over 40 approved nutrient content claims Free - None or hardly any of this nutrient. Low - Small amount. Reduced - At least 25% less of the nutrient than a similar product. Light - Can be used in foods that are reduced in calories or fat.

63 Nutrient Content Claims Source - Contains a useful amount of the nutrient High or good source - Contains a high amount of the nutrient Very high or excellent source - Contains a very high amount of the nutrient

64 Diet-related Health Claims A diet low in saturated and trans fat reduces risk of heart disease. A diet with adequate calcium and vitamin D, and regular physical activity, reduces risk of osteoporosis. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit reduces risk of some types of cancer. A diet low in sodium and high in potassium reduces risk of high blood pressure.

65 Structure-function claims Made without approval Only criteria is not to mention a disease or symptom – i.e. Promotes a healthy heart

66 Nutrition Labels Consumer education – Health Canada website on nutrition labelling etiquet/nutrition/index-eng.php etiquet/nutrition/index-eng.php – Canadian Diabetes Association & Dietitians of Canada: Healthy Eating is in Store for You

67 Information about Nutrient Content of Food Canadian Nutrient File – Computerized food composition database containing average values of nutrients in foods available in Canada. – Used to support food surveillance and risk assessments. nutri-data/index_e.html

68 Next Chapter 3 – Digestion, Absorption & Transport

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