3 INTRODUCTION oIn Vietnam pig production plays an important role (population 19.3 mill. animals, 1999) oMajority of slaughtered pigs produced on small- scale farms pCheap local materials used as energy sources oProtein supplement bought relatively expensive To develop cheap and locally available protein- rich feed sources Shrimp by-product may be an alternative
4 SHRIMP PRODUCTION IN VIETNAM §Shrimp - the best food from fishery & expensive §The World market & consumption increases §Vietnam is the 5 th largest shrimp producers §Dramatically increasing during 90-99 about 14% annual (83,000 in 1990 & 211,8000 ton in 1999) §Farming & natural catching many species §Mainly processing for export => By-products
6 Shrimp By-products Produced & Sold by Hue Seafood Processing Factory §In 1995, 237 tons SBP produced, and §125 tons utilized as feed by mainly sun- drying §48% used in rainy season (Oct- Mar) Dry or ?
7 OBJECTIVES To assess the flesh and by-product yields of the most abundant shrimp species, and chemical composition and amino acid profile of shrimp by-products (SBP); To identify the most appropriate ensiling techniques for preserving SBP; To provide information on total tract and ileal digestibility of nutrients & ileal digestibility of individual amino acids; To evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal by SBP on the performance and carcass traits of pigs.
8 Investigation on Anatomical Proportions and Chemical and Amino Acid Composition
9 Anatomical proportions & chemical composition: Species Penaeus monodon Giant Tiger prawn Penaeus semisulcatus Green Tiger prawn Metapenaeus affinis Pink (Jinga) shrimp Grow in both saline and brackish waters, and harvested at different times of year Buy from local market in different months
10 Anatomical Proportions & Chemical Composition: Measurements 3 Length & body weight: washed and dried on soft paper prior to weighing, and the head and shell with tail removed to weigh different body proportions 3 Chemical composition and amino acid profile of shrimp by-products Effect of heat treatment on proximate composition and amino acid profile
11 Mean Body Weight and Flesh & By-product Yield 1Average flesh & by-product yield 56.7 & 43.3% 1Peneaus species generated lower by-product yield
12 Chemical Composition of Shrimp By-products (%)
13 Some Essential Amino Acid Contents Compared to Fishmeal (1)
14 Effect of Heat Treatment on Chemical (%) & Amino Acid Composition (g 16 g -1 N) pDumped into hot water of 80 0 C for 5 min. following the procedure of the factory pNot affected by heat treatment
17 Experimental Design Two additives at different proportions: Molasses and CRM Ratios of SBP to Molasses 6:1, 4:1 & 3:1 (wet weight) SBP to CRM: 3:1, 2:1 & 1:1 (wet weight of SBP, dry weight of CRM) Measurements of DM, CP, NH 3 -N and pH at 0, 7, 14, 21 & 56 days, in triplicate
22 Total Tract Digestibility: Design 1Two digestibility trials carried out: on intact pigs & cannulated pigs to evaluate digestibility of OM & CP 1First trial: 6 intact pigs arranged 3 dietary treatments: 1 FM diet: CRM, rice bran & FM, 1 SEM diet: CRM, rice bran & SBP ensiled with molasses 1 SEC diet: CRM, rice bran & SBP ensiled with CRM 1Second trial: 4 pigs fitted PVTC fed 4 diets 1 Basal diet: CRM & rice bran 1 FM diet: basal diet & fishmeal 1 FSB diet: basal diet & fresh SBP 1 ESB diet: basal diet & SBP ensiled with molasses
23 Total Tract Digestibility: Results 1On intact pigs: Digestibility of OM & CP and N-retention significantly higher for the FM diet than SEM & SEC diets 1On cannulated pigs: Digestibility of OM & CP significantly lower for ESB diet than for FM & FSB diets
24 Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids q4 PVTC-cannulated pigs fed 4 diets: l Basal diet: rice bran & CRM l FM diet: basal diet & fishmeal l FSB diet: basal diet & fresh SBP l ESB diet: basal diet & SBP ensiled with molasses qHigher ileal digestibility of most AA in FM, FSB & ESB than the basal diet qNo difference in the digestibility of individual AA between FM, FSB & ESB, except for Thr, Ala & Gly
27 Growth Performance Trial: D esign q36 pigs in 3 treatments, 3 replicates, 4 pigs/replicate qAnimals fed one of three diets, including l control diet (FM diet) and l 2 test diets based on the control diet with replacement of 50 (FM-ESB diet) or l 100% (ESB diet) of FM protein by SBP ensiled with molasses qMeasurements: daily gain, FCR, some carcass characteristics
30 CONCLUSIONS 4Protein-rich feed source, potentially useful. Low Methionine content limits its use. High chitin content limiting factor for nutrient utilisation. High content of Ca limits the level of inclusion. 4Shrimp by-product successfully preserved by ensiling with molasses at a ratio of 3:1 or with cassava root meal at a ratio of 1:1. 4Fresh shrimp by-product could replace some of the fishmeal protein in diets for pigs. 4High levels (above 7% DM) of inclusion of ensiled shrimp by-product in pig diets reduced body weight gain and feed intake.
31 Further Studies on Shrimp By- products Have been done (01-02): §Using SBP for laying hens (Luong Phuong & Tam Hoang breeds) §Using SBP for broilers Propose to continue: §Introducing to farmers (Training materials, courses..)
32 Thank you very much Tack så mycket Xin caïm ån