5CAUSES OF CANCER Lifestyle Food Air pollution Irradiation Toxic chemicalsgenetic
6Endometrial cancer (6%) MalefemaleMost commonCause of deathProstate cancer (33%)lung cancer (31%)Breast cancer (32%)lung cancer (27%)lung cancer (13%)Prostate cancer (10%)lung cancer (12%)Breast cancer (15%)Colorectal cancer (10%)Colorectal cancer (11%)Bladder cancer (7%)Pancreatic cancer (5%)Endometrial cancer (6%)Ovarian cancer (6%)
7CAUSES OF CANCER80% of all cancers are due to identified factors potentially preventable30% are due to tobacco use35-50% of cancers directly linked to dietary choicesIt is easy to control these and other risk factors
9Cancer symptoms1. Local symptoms:unusual lumps or swelling (tumor), hemorrhage (bleeding), pain2. Symptoms of metastasis (spreading):enlarged lymph nodes, cough, enlarged liver, bone pain, fracture of affected bones and neurological symptoms.3. Systemic symptoms:weight loss, poor appetite & wasting, excessive sweating (night sweats), anemia and specific paraneoplastic phenomena
10CAN CERTAIN FOODS PREVENT CANCER? LUNGCANCERSmoking is mostly responsibleCarotenoids in vegetables and fruits are clinically proven protective against lung cancer
11CAN CERTAIN FOODS PREVENT CANCER? Vegetables-soy in particular – may decreased the riskHigh fat diet may increased the riskLycopene – a potent antioxidant may help lower the riskPROSTATECANCER
12high level of estrogen during woman’s reproductive life increased the risk of breast cancer Diets high in mono-unsaturated fat and high in fibers may reduced the riskAlcohol consumption increases the riskBREASTCANCER
13BOWEL CANCER Up to 70% of cases can be prevented by healthy lifestyle Physical activity and diet high in vegetables and fiber are protective against this cancerHigh red meat intake and alcohol may increase the riskBOWELCANCER
15GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR AN ANTI-CANCER DIET 1. Reduced unhealthy dietary fat2. Cut down on meat3. Eat plenty of fiber4. Limit or eliminate consumptionof alcoholic beverages5. Remove known carcinogensfrom diet6. Restrict sodium intake
161. REDUCE UNHEALTHY DIETARY FAT Fat cell can split easily contribute to high population of free radicalsFree radicals damage the cell’s DNA structure mutation can occur lead to formation and growth of cancerous cellSaturated fat and trans fat are two most damaging fatsPrimary source of saturated fat is animal products = meat, seafood, whole-fat milk & milk product, eggsTrans fat (hydrogenated oils) come from heating vegetables oils (mainly in commercial prepared baked goods, margarines and processed foods)
182. CUT DOWN ON MEATHigh level of fat consumption is related with highest death rates from breast and colon cancerLimit consumption of meat esp. high fat meat (2-3 servings a day)Choose white meat (fish and chicken) instead of red meatPrepare meat by baking, broiling or poaching rather than frying or charbroiling
193. EAT PLENTY OF FIBERFiber moves cancer-causing compounds out of the bodyAlso thought to dilute potential carcinogens and effect hormone productionRecommended grams fiber per dayFiber only found in plant sourcesEat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables each dayVegetables contains cancer fighting substances = antioxidant
20ANTIOXIDANT DEFENCESUnstable oxygen molecules called free radicals attack cell membranes damage the DNA beginning of cancerAntioxidants can neutralize the damaging effect of oxygenVitamin B,C, E, beta-carotene and selenium acts as antioxidantVegetables, fruits, grains and beans contain antioxidant
214. LIMIT OR ELIMINATE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Higher risk of liver, breast, rectum, mouth, esophagus, digestive tract and lung cancerCombination of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking has a synergistic effect more likely to cause cancer
22FOOD PYRAMID Consume LITTLE Consume in MODERATION (1-2 Servings) FOOD PYRAMIDConsume LITTLEConsume in MODERATION (1-2 Servings)Consume in MODERATION (1-2 Servings)Consume More (3-5 servings)Consume MOST (8-12 servings)
23Consume LITTLEEat to meet your needs! HEALTHY TIP Fats and oils contain essential fatty acids and vitamins A, D, E, K.
24Consume in MODERATION (1-2 servings) One Serving Equals … 1 glass of milk 1 cup yoghurt 1 slice cheeseHEALTHY TIP Milk is an important part of a child's diet
25Consume in MODERATION (2-3 servings) One Serving Equals … 1 medium-sized chicken drumstick 1 medium-sized ikan kembong 2 matchbox-sized lean meat 5 dessert spoon headless ikan bilis Note: One (1) matchbox lean meat = 1 piece tempeh = 1 hard tauhu = 2 dsp peanut butter = ½ cup dried legumes/beans = 4 dsp shelled small prawnsHEALTHY TIP Combining a variety of legumes gives you high quality protein.
26Consume More (3-5 servings) One Serving Equals … ½ medium-sized guava 1 small to medium whole orange, pear or apple 1 medium-sized banana 1 slice papaya, pineapple, watermelonHEALTHY TIPTake fruits as desserts to endeach meal in a healthier way.One Serving Equals … ½ cup cooked dark green leafy vegetables with edible stems ½ cup cooked fruit or root vegetables HEALTHY TIP Don’t destroy the vitamins in your vegetables with over-cooking.
27Consume MOST (8-12 servings) One Serving Equals … 1 slice of wholemeal bread ½ cup cooked rice ½ cup soaked bihun, mee or pasta ½ side-plate-sized capati 1 cup plain rice porridge ½ cup ready-to-eat breakfast cereal 1 medium-sized potato 3 plain biscuitsHEALTHY TIP Choose wholegrain cereal and cereal products to help meet your fibre needs.
29Activity 1:1.Regarding to the Food Pyramid, make a menu for breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner
305. REMOVE KNOWN CARCINOGENS FROM DIET DID YOU KNOW WHAT IS CARCINOGEN?
31CARCINOGENSCancer causing substances found in food and in method of cooking.Attact DNA and alter itIt takes years for a noticeable tumor to developDuring this time, compound known as inhibitors can keep the cells from growingSome vitamins in plant foods are known to be inhibitors.
32Avoid foods that look or smell moldy Buy organic if possible Steer clear of smoked foodsDo not cook oils on high heatTIPS FOR AVOIDINGCARCINOGENSBeware of cured, dried and preserved meatsGo easy on the barbecue
33SPECIFIC FOODS HAVE THE MOST PREVENTATIVE EFFECT FOR CANCER BEANSrich in fiberContain several chemicals that boost immunity to cancerCRUCIFEROUS VEGE (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower)ability to stop the growth of cancer cellsDecreased risk for lung, stomach and colorectal cancersDARK GREEN LEAFY VEGEHigh in fiber, folate and antioxidantsCarotenoids effective in inhibiting the formation of breast and skin cancer tumorsGRAPEShigh level of polyphenolSlow the growth of cancer cellsInhibit the formation of tumors in lymph, liver, stomach and breast cancer
35SPECIFIC FOODS HAVE THE MOST PREVENTATIVE EFFECT FOR CANCER GARLICNatural antibiotic and immune system enhancerFree radical attackerIncreases the enzymes that break down carcinogens in the bodySlowing or stopping the growth of tumorsGREEN TEABest source of catechinsInhibit specific enzyme that lead to cancerRepair cellular damage by free radicalsInhibit or block cancer developmentTURMERICHas an active ingredient called curcuminShown resistance to colon, breast, liver, oral, skin and stomach tumors
36SPECIFIC FOODS HAVE THE MOST PREVENTATIVE EFFECT FOR CANCER SOY FOODContains phytoestogensWeaker form of estrogenReducing the probability of developing cancerProtect against breast cancerLow the risk of prostate cancerTOMATOESContain phytochemical lycopeneLower risk of cancer (prostate, stomach, lung)Highest anti-cancer potential when taken in a processed form (tomato sauce, paste and juice) because of easier absorptionYOGURTReduced risks of breast and colon cancer
37MOST POTENT NUTRIENTS IN FIGHT AGAINST CANCER FOOD SOURCEVitamin AFish liver oils, liverBeta caroteneOrange, yellow and dark green leafy vegetablesVitamin B2Whole and enriched cereals and breads, lean meat, milk, eggs, liverVitamin B6As for vit.B2 and bananasFolic acidLeafy green vegetables, meatsPantothenic acidLegumes, salmon, whole grainsVitamin CCitrus fruits, berries, broccoli, bell peppersVitamin ELeafy green vegetables, egg yolk, liver
38MOST POTENT NUTRIENTS IN FIGHT AGAINST CANCER FOOD SOURCESeleniumGarlic, legumes, fishIronLiver, peas, egg yolkZincLiver, oysters, soybeans, sunflower seedsMagnesiumGreen leafy vegetables, nuts, seafoodManganeseBananas, pineapple, nuts, branProteinLean meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, legumesAntioxidantsCitrus fruits, legumes, whole grainPhytonutrientsAll plant sources of food, especially dark and bright colored fruits and vegetables
40CANCER PROTECTIVE DIETS CONCLUSIONHigh in fiberRich in complex carbohydrates, vitamin and mineralsCANCER PROTECTIVE DIETSARE BUILT FROM PLANT-BASED FOODS:Rich in cancer fighting phytochemicalNaturally low in fat, salt and cholesterol-free
41CONCLUSIONBuild your diet from a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains and legumesChoose minimally-processed foodsSTEPS YOU CAN TAKE TOMAXIMIZE THE CANCERFIGHTING POWEROF YOUR DIETSelect foods low in fat and saltInclude daily servings of bright-colored fruits and vegetables and dark green leafy vegetablesReduced foods from animal sources
42CONCLUSION Completely avoid using tobacco in any form Maintain a healthy weightIMPORTANT STEPSTO KEEP YOURBODY STRONGAND HEALTHYIncorporate physical activity into your daily routineAvoid drinking alcoholic beverages
43ACTIVITY 2:Record your typical one day intake from wake up in the morning to before going to bed at nightThen list out the food that contain preventative effect for cancerPlease be honest!
44ACTIVITY 3:Do we need supplements pills in our diet to prevent cancer?Give the reason (to support your answer)