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2 2 Single abnormal cell multiply out of control form tumors invade healthy tissue WHAT IS CANCER? spreading to other parts of body

3 3 When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis (A). apoptosis Cancer cells avoid apoptosis and continue to multiply in an unregulated manner (B).

4 4

5 5 CAUSES OF CANCER Air pollution Toxic chemicals Food Irradiation Lifestyle genetic

6 6 Malefemale Most commonCause of deathMost commonCause of death Prostate cancer (33%) lung cancer (31%) Breast cancer (32%) lung cancer (27%) lung cancer (13%) Prostate cancer (10%) lung cancer (12%) Breast cancer (15%) Colorectal cancer (10%) Colorectal cancer (11%) Colorectal cancer (10%) Bladder cancer (7%) Pancreatic cancer (5%) Endometrial cancer (6%) Ovarian cancer (6%)

7 7 CAUSES OF CANCER 80% of all cancers are due to identified factors potentially preventable 30% are due to tobacco use 35-50% of cancers directly linked to dietary choices It is easy to control these and other risk factors

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9 9 Cancer symptoms 1. Local symptoms: unusual lumps or swelling (tumor), hemorrhage (bleeding), pain 2.Symptoms of metastasis (spreading): enlarged lymph nodes, cough, enlarged liver, bone pain, fracture of affected bones and neurological symptoms. 3.Systemic symptoms: weight loss, poor appetite & wasting, excessive sweating (night sweats), anemia and specific paraneoplastic phenomena

10 10 CAN CERTAIN FOODS PREVENT CANCER? LUNG CANCER Smoking is mostly responsible Carotenoids in vegetables and fruits are clinically proven protective against lung cancer

11 11 PROSTATE CANCER Vegetables-soy in particular – may decreased the risk High fat diet may increased the risk Lycopene – a potent antioxidant may help lower the risk CAN CERTAIN FOODS PREVENT CANCER?

12 12 BREAST CANCER high level of estrogen during womans reproductive life increased the risk of breast cancer Diets high in mono- unsaturated fat and high in fibers may reduced the risk Alcohol consumption increases the risk

13 13 BOWEL CANCER Up to 70% of cases can be prevented by healthy lifestyle Physical activity and diet high in vegetables and fiber are protective against this cancer High red meat intake and alcohol may increase the risk

14 14 Take a break !!

15 15 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR AN ANTI-CANCER DIET 1. Reduced unhealthy dietary fat 4. Limit or eliminate consumption of alcoholic beverages 6. Restrict sodium intake 2. Cut down on meat 5. Remove known carcinogens from diet 3. Eat plenty of fiber

16 16 1. REDUCE UNHEALTHY DIETARY FAT Fat cell can split easily contribute to high population of free radicals Free radicals damage the cells DNA structure mutation can occur lead to formation and growth of cancerous cell Saturated fat and trans fat are two most damaging fats Primary source of saturated fat is animal products = meat, seafood, whole-fat milk & milk product, eggs Trans fat (hydrogenated oils) come from heating vegetables oils (mainly in commercial prepared baked goods, margarines and processed foods)

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18 18 2. CUT DOWN ON MEAT High level of fat consumption is related with highest death rates from breast and colon cancer Limit consumption of meat esp. high fat meat (2-3 servings a day) Choose white meat (fish and chicken) instead of red meat Prepare meat by baking, broiling or poaching rather than frying or charbroiling

19 19 3. EAT PLENTY OF FIBER Fiber moves cancer-causing compounds out of the body Also thought to dilute potential carcinogens and effect hormone production Recommended 20-30 grams fiber per day Fiber only found in plant sources Eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables each day Vegetables contains cancer fighting substances = antioxidant

20 20 ANTIOXIDANT DEFENCES Unstable oxygen molecules called free radicals attack cell membranes damage the DNA beginning of cancer Antioxidants can neutralize the damaging effect of oxygen Vitamin B,C, E, beta-carotene and selenium acts as antioxidant Vegetables, fruits, grains and beans contain antioxidant

21 21 4. LIMIT OR ELIMINATE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Higher risk of liver, breast, rectum, mouth, esophagus, digestive tract and lung cancer Combination of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking has a synergistic effect more likely to cause cancer

22 22 FOOD PYRAMID Consume MOST (8-12 servings) Consume More (3-5 servings) Consume in MODERATION (1-2 Servings) Consume LITTLE Consume in MODERATION (1-2 Servings)

23 23 Eat to meet your needs! HEALTHY TIP Fats and oils contain essential fatty acids and vitamins A, D, E, K. Consume LITTLE

24 24 Consume in MODERATION (1-2 servings) One Serving Equals … 1 glass of milk 1 cup yoghurt 1 slice cheese HEALTHY TIP Milk is an important part of a child's diet

25 25 One Serving Equals … 1 medium-sized chicken drumstick 1 medium-sized ikan kembong 2 matchbox-sized lean meat 5 dessert spoon headless ikan bilis Note: One (1) matchbox lean meat = 1 piece tempeh = 1 hard tauhu = 2 dsp peanut butter = ½ cup dried legumes/beans = 4 dsp shelled small prawns HEALTHY TIP Combining a variety of legumes gives you high quality protein. Consume in MODERATION (2-3 servings)

26 26 Consume More (3-5 servings) One Serving Equals … ½ medium-sized guava 1 small to medium whole orange, pear or apple 1 medium-sized banana 1 slice papaya, pineapple, watermelon HEALTHY TIP Take fruits as desserts to end each meal in a healthier way. One Serving Equals … ½ cup cooked dark green leafy vegetables with edible stems ½ cup cooked fruit or root vegetables HEALTHY TIP Dont destroy the vitamins in your vegetables with over- cooking.

27 27 One Serving Equals … 1 slice of wholemeal bread ½ cup cooked rice ½ cup soaked bihun, mee or pasta ½ side-plate-sized capati 1 cup plain rice porridge ½ cup ready-to-eat breakfast cereal 1 medium-sized potato 3 plain biscuits HEALTHY TIP Choose wholegrain cereal and cereal products to help meet your fibre needs. Consume MOST (8-12 servings)

28 28 Take a break !!

29 29 Activity 1: 1.Regarding to the Food Pyramid, make a menu for breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner


31 31 CARCINOGENS Cancer causing substances found in food and in method of cooking. Attact DNA and alter it It takes years for a noticeable tumor to develop During this time, compound known as inhibitors can keep the cells from growing Some vitamins in plant foods are known to be inhibitors.

32 32 TIPS FOR AVOIDING CARCINOGENS Avoid foods that look or smell moldy Do not cook oils on high heat Beware of cured, dried and preserved meats Go easy on the barbecue Steer clear of smoked foods Buy organic if possible

33 33 SPECIFIC FOODS HAVE THE MOST PREVENTATIVE EFFECT FOR CANCER BEANS rich in fiber Contain several chemicals that boost immunity to cancer CRUCIFEROUS VEGE (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower) ability to stop the growth of cancer cells Decreased risk for lung, stomach and colorectal cancers DARK GREEN LEAFY VEGE High in fiber, folate and antioxidants Carotenoids effective in inhibiting the formation of breast and skin cancer tumors GRAPES high level of polyphenol Slow the growth of cancer cells Inhibit the formation of tumors in lymph, liver, stomach and breast cancer

34 34 kale CRUCIFEROUS VEGE Bok choy collard arugala watercress broccoli cauliflower

35 35 GARLIC Natural antibiotic and immune system enhancer Free radical attacker Increases the enzymes that break down carcinogens in the body Slowing or stopping the growth of tumors GREEN TEA Best source of catechins Inhibit specific enzyme that lead to cancer Repair cellular damage by free radicals Inhibit or block cancer development TURMERIC Has an active ingredient called curcumin Shown resistance to colon, breast, liver, oral, skin and stomach tumors SPECIFIC FOODS HAVE THE MOST PREVENTATIVE EFFECT FOR CANCER

36 36 SOY FOOD Contains phytoestogens Weaker form of estrogen Reducing the probability of developing cancer Protect against breast cancer Low the risk of prostate cancer TOMATOES Contain phytochemical lycopene Lower risk of cancer (prostate, stomach, lung) Highest anti-cancer potential when taken in a processed form (tomato sauce, paste and juice) because of easier absorption YOGURT Reduced risks of breast and colon cancer SPECIFIC FOODS HAVE THE MOST PREVENTATIVE EFFECT FOR CANCER

37 37 MOST POTENT NUTRIENTS IN FIGHT AGAINST CANCER NUTRIENTFOOD SOURCE Vitamin AFish liver oils, liver Beta caroteneOrange, yellow and dark green leafy vegetables Vitamin B 2 Whole and enriched cereals and breads, lean meat, milk, eggs, liver Vitamin B 6 As for vit.B 2 and bananas Folic acidLeafy green vegetables, meats Pantothenic acidLegumes, salmon, whole grains Vitamin CCitrus fruits, berries, broccoli, bell peppers Vitamin ELeafy green vegetables, egg yolk, liver

38 38 MOST POTENT NUTRIENTS IN FIGHT AGAINST CANCER NUTRIENTFOOD SOURCE SeleniumGarlic, legumes, fish IronLiver, peas, egg yolk ZincLiver, oysters, soybeans, sunflower seeds MagnesiumGreen leafy vegetables, nuts, seafood ManganeseBananas, pineapple, nuts, bran ProteinLean meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, legumes AntioxidantsCitrus fruits, legumes, whole grain PhytonutrientsAll plant sources of food, especially dark and bright colored fruits and vegetables

39 39 Take a break !!

40 40 CONCLUSION CANCER PROTECTIVE DIETS ARE BUILT FROM PLANT- BASED FOODS: Rich in complex carbohydrates, vitamin and minerals Rich in cancer fighting phytochemical High in fiber Naturally low in fat, salt and cholesterol-free

41 41 CONCLUSION Build your diet from a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes Include daily servings of bright-colored fruits and vegetables and dark green leafy vegetables Reduced foods from animal sources Select foods low in fat and salt Choose minimally- processed foods STEPS YOU CAN TAKE TO MAXIMIZE THE CANCER FIGHTING POWER OF YOUR DIET

42 42 CONCLUSION IMPORTANT STEPS TO KEEP YOUR BODY STRONG AND HEALTHY Maintain a healthy weight Incorporate physical activity into your daily routine Avoid drinking alcoholic beverages Completely avoid using tobacco in any form

43 43 ACTIVITY 2: Record your typical one day intake from wake up in the morning to before going to bed at night Then list out the food that contain preventative effect for cancer Please be honest!

44 44 ACTIVITY 3: Do we need supplements pills in our diet to prevent cancer? Give the reason (to support your answer)



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